REMOTE STUDIES OF COMBUSTION AND EXPLOSION PROCESSES BASED ON OPTOELECTRONIC METHODS
Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The main objective of this book is to acquaint the reader with the main modern problems of the multisensor data analysis and opportunities of the hyperspectral shooting being carried out in the wide range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to the infrared range, visualization of the fast combustion processes of flame propagation and flame acceleration, the limit phenomena at flame ignition and propagation. The book can be useful to students of the high courses and scientists dealing with problems of optical spectroscopy, vizualisation, digital recognizing images and gaseous combustion. The main goal of this book is to bring to the attention of the reader the main modern problems of multisensory data analysis and the possibilities of hyperspectral imaging, carried out in a broad wave-length range from ultraviolet to infrared by methods of visualizing fast combustion processes, propagation and flames acceleration, and limiting phenomena during ignition and flame propagation. The book can be useful for students of higher courses and experimental scientists dealing with problems of optical spectroscopy, visualization, pattern recognition and gas combustion.

Ключевые слова:
Remote measurements, optoelectronic methods, multisensor data analysis, hyper spectral shooting, ramjet engine, Catalytic Stabilization
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UDC 681.785.235 541.126/126.4                                                    

Remote measurements of combustion and explosion processes based on optoelectronic methods

Rubtsov Nikolay Mikhailovich Doctor of Chem. Sci., cso, Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science RAS, Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS

Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich, Full Professor, corr. mem. of RAS, Merzhanov Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science RAS,

Kalinin Alexander Petrovich Doctor of Phys.-Math. Sci., lso, Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS

Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich Cand. of Phys.-Math. Sci., Head of the Laboratory of "Scientific and Technical Center "Reagent" CJSC

Rodionov Alexey Igorevich Cand. of Phys.-Math. Sci., sso,

Kirill Yakovlevich Troshin, Dr. of Phys.-Math. Sci., lco, N.N. SEMENOV FEDERAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR CHEMICAL PHYSICS RAS

The main objective of this book is to acquaint the reader with the main modern problems of the multisensor data analysis and opportunities of the hyper spectral shooting being carried out in the wide range of wavelengths from ultra-violet to the infrared range, visualization of the fast combustion processes of flame propagation and flame acceleration, the limit phenomena at flame ignition and propagation. The book can be useful to students of the high courses and scientists dealing with problems of optical spectroscopy, vizualisation, digital recognizing images and gaseous combustion.

The main goal of this book is to bring to the attention of the reader the main modern problems of multisensory data analysis and the possibilities of hyperspectral imaging, carried out in a broad wave-length range from ultraviolet to infrared by methods of visualizing fast combustion processes, propagation and flames acceleration, and limiting phenomena during ignition and flame propagation. The book can be useful for students of higher courses and experimental scientists dealing with problems of optical spectroscopy, visualization, pattern recognition and gas combustion.

Some of the abbreviations used in the book:

FF - flame front, NG - natural gas

HRE - hypersonic ramjet engine,

ISS -  International Space Station, AES - Artificial Earth Satellite

CP - chemically pure, ECP - especially chemically pure

RGB  - abbreviation of the English words of Red, Green, Blue; an additive color model that describes a method of coding a color  for color reproduction  using three colors, which are commonly called primary  

CS - Catalytic Stabilization - stabilization of the process using a catalyst

To, Po - initial temperature and pressure, q - fraction of fuel in the gas mixture.

BET - polymolecular adsorption according to Brunauer - Emmett - Teller

NPS - nuclear power station

 

Abstract

Nowadays, remote-sensing methods of studying various processes, for which various optoelectronic devices are used, are becoming more and more increasingly prevalent. In particular, multifrequency survey with the use of optoelectronic sensors for various wavelength ranges is of great interest. This book describes and analyzes some of the capabilities of optoelectronic devices for studying combustion and explosion processes in a wide wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared range by methods of visualizing fast combustion processes, propagation and flames acceleration, limiting phenomena during ignition and flame propagation. Optoelectronic devices are understood as devices that convert an optical signal into an electrical signal, which is further processed by electronic devices. Optoelectronic devices, in particular, are digital cameras, digital video cameras, hyperspectrometers, UV sensors, etc. As a rule, the recorded radiation spectrum is limited for individual devices.

Therefore, two or more sensors are used multisensory imaging for the so-called multispectral analysis. The possibilities of unique UV sensors, which are developed at "SPC "Reagent" CJSC and which have numerous applications in various fields of science and technology, are considered.

Using numerous examples of the use of modern optoelectronic devices, the effectiveness of the use of multispectral multisensor imaging for studying combustion and explosion processes has been demonstrated.

The book considers the method of multispectral analysis of remote sensing data and assesses the capabilities of multisensory imagery carried out in a wide range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared range. Various combinations of data made it possible to georeference images, to reveal the detailed structure of the analyzed scene, to study the spectral composition of the radiation of objects and to distinguish point sources by it. It is especially important, for example, for detecting fire centers and determining their coordinates. One of the very promising optoelectronic devices is the hyperspectrometer. The relevance of the work carried out in Russia on the creation of new types of hyperspectral modules is determined by their ability to extract the maximum information from optical radiation ascending from remotely sounded objects. Besides, it is determined by the lagging of domestic developments outlined in the 90s of the last century from developments carried out abroad. The hyperspectral modules developed at «SPC «Reagent» CJSC by their technical characteristics are not inferior to and even surpass modern foreign aviation imaging spectrometers. In particular, this concerns the spatial resolution and the number of spectral channels of the modules. "SPC "Reagent" CJSC has mastered the industrial production of hyperspectral modules in the UV, visible and near-infrared range. Full-scale tests of the developed and manufactured devices confirmed the correctness of the design solutions incorporated in them and the ability to confidently determine the type and state of probed natural and anthropogenic objects based on hyperspectral sensing data in the interests of solving many scientific, industrial and other problems. In particular, it is shown that the joint analysis of data from different sensors can achieve a significant synergetic effect. This book examines some hyperspectrometers developed at "SPC "Reagent", as well as a very interesting development as the UV-C sensor. A good deal of the book is devoted to describing the results of remote sensing of combustion and explosion processes in laboratory conditions.

As a result of a series of works on the study of combustion and explosion processes in laboratory conditions, which included remote sensing methods using multi-sensor analysis, it was experimentally established that during central ignition, the flame of weak (6-15% H2) hydrogen-air mixtures has a cellular structure. In mixtures containing 6-10% of H2, the flames at the initial stage near the lower concentration limit propagate spherically symmetrically; then the gravity field distorts the shape of the combustion front, while the flames of mixtures containing 10-15% of H2 propagate spherically symmetrically. It is shown that the Boussinesq approximation is applicable to obtain cells with a concentration of H2 <10%, taking into account the force of gravity. Calculations by the Boussinesq model in the absence of gravity do not give the formation of cells. The use of the Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible medium makes it possible to describe the spherically symmetric mode of propagation of a cellular flame under microgravity conditions. It has been found that the analysis of experimental data on flame propagation in weak mixtures does not make it possible to distinguish between the calculation results using a two-dimensional model with and without convection. It has been shown experimentally that additions of isobutene С4Н8 in amounts below the lower concentration limit (up to 1.5%) lead to an increase, and additions of СО2 to 15% - to a decrease in the flame propagation rate in weak hydrogen-air mixtures. The reasons for the acceleration of combustion in the presence of a hydrocarbon additive are considered.

It is shown that the detected glowing inhomogeneities can be associated with the presence of acoustic waves if to use the combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures (30% and 15% H2) as an example. It was found that the flame propagation rates in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture with central spark initiation do not depend on the material of the inner surface of the reactor (stainless steel, TiO2, Ta, Pt), but depend on the shape of the inner surface of the reactor.

It is shown that spark-initiated flames of weak hydrogen mixtures (8% -15% H2 in air) pass through aluminum mesh spheres with a cell size of 0.04-0.1 mm2, while the flame of a mixture of 15% of H2 in air accelerates after passing through an obstacle. In the presence of an obstacle during the flame propagation in mixtures with an H2 concentration of 10% and 15%, acoustic oscillations of the gas appear in the reactor. With a decrease in the diameter of the sphere, the oscillations appear earlier in time. The flame of a mixture with a concentration of 7.5% of H2 in air does not pass through the mesh spheres. It was found that the flame of a mixture of 8% of natural gas with air passes through the mesh spheres, but after the obstacle, the flame speed remains the same. In this case, acoustic oscillations are not observed. It is shown that the active centers of combustion of methane and hydrogen, which determine the propagation of the flame, have a different chemical nature.

In a static bypass installation with a tangential inlet of the mixture under study, the effect of thermal ignition of combustible mixtures at reactor temperatures significantly lower than the thermal ignition temperature was experimentally discovered. In this case, the difference between the temperature of the reactor and the temperature of thermal ignition can reach more than 150 K. This effect is caused primarily by the presence of centripetal forces, which inevitably arise during the formation of a vortex gas flow. The result of the action of these forces on the flow is the radial stratification of the gas in terms of density and, therefore, in terms of temperatures. In the central region, the hottest and least mobile gas is formed and, in addition, it is well insulated from the walls of the reactor. The possibility of mixing it with fresh cold masses of gas is excluded. The pressure increase in the reactor caused by the mixture puffing leads to adiabatic compression and additional heating of the gas. The centripetal forces contribute to the fact that the heat, which begins to release with the onset of a chemical reaction, accumulates in the central region of the reactor, thus creating favorable conditions for thermal ignition.

It is shown that phenomena occur due to the instability of a flat flame when the flame front (FF) propagates from spherical to propagation in a tube in a reactor if to use the example of combustion of stoichiometric mixtures of n-pentane (C5H12) with air, diluted with carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) at total atmospheric pressure,. It is shown that, upon deceleration of the FF near the end wall of the reactor, a smooth FF acquires a cellular structure. It is shown that qualitative modeling of the results obtained is possible when analyzing the Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible medium in the low Mach number approximation. Using the methods of 4D optical spectroscopy and color high-speed filming, the features of combustion in flame cells caused by hydrodynamic instability have been experimentally established for the first time. It is shown that any combustion cell is essentially a separate “chemical reactor”, in each of which the process of complete chemical transformation is carried out. The results obtained on the spectral study and visualization of the propagation of unstable flames fronts are important in solving the issues of explosion safety for volumes of complex geometry.

A cellular mode of combustion of a 40 % mixture of hydrogen with air in the presence of platinum wire and foil in the range of 270-350 °С at atmospheric pressure was found. Using the methods of traditional and 4D optical spectroscopy, which makes it possible to record the intensity of the optical spectrum simultaneously depending on the wavelength, time and coordinate, and high-speed color filming, combustion cells caused by catalytic instability have been experimentally detected for the first time. It was found that the cellular mode is determined by the catalytic combustion of hydrogen on Pt particles formed during the decomposition of unstable platinum oxide in the gas phase. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the hydrogen ignition delays on a platinum wire and foil in both stationary and rotating gases corresponds to an activation energy of 19 ± 3 kcal/mol, which is close to the activation energy of branching of the reaction chains of hydrogen oxidation. The impurity origin of the 552 nm emission band, which is often recorded during the gas combustion and heterogeneous mixtures, has been established. The results obtained are of direct importance for the development of Catalytic Stabilization (CS) technology and the development of catalysts with increased activity. The results are also important for verification of theoretical concepts of the propagation of dust and gas flames.

It has been shown experimentally that in the case of flame penetration through an obstacle, gas-dynamic factors, for example, flame-generated turbulence, can determine the kinetics of the process, including the transition of low-temperature combustion of a hydrocarbon to a high-temperature regime.

It was found that the flame front after a single obstacle does not arise in the immediate vicinity of the obstacle. The first nucleation site for ignition can be observed relatively far from the surface of the obstacle. It is shown that the use of a grid sphere as an obstacle leads to an increase in the length of the flame "jump" behind the obstacle in comparison with a round hole. It has been demonstrated that two or more obstacles, both spherical and planar, noticeably suppress the propagation of the flame, which can be associated with both heat losses from the flame front and with heterogeneous termination of reaction chains at the obstacle. Experimentally has been shown that below the limit of the flame penetration of a diluted methane-oxygen mixture through a flat obstacle with one hole, the flame does not penetrate from the side of the funnel mouth, but penetrates from the side of the funnel nose for an obstacle in the form of a funnel. It was found that the flame front after a single obstacle does not arise in the immediate vicinity of the obstacle. The first nucleation site for ignition can be observed relatively far from the surface of the obstacle. It is shown that the use of a grid sphere as an obstacle leads to an increase in the length of the flame "jump" behind the obstacle in comparison with a round hole. It has been demonstrated that two or more obstacles, both spherical and planar, noticeably suppress the propagation of the flame, which can be associated with both heat losses from the flame front and with heterogeneous termination of reaction chains at the obstacle. Experimentally has been shown that below the limit of the flame penetration of a diluted methane-oxygen mixture through a flat obstacle with one hole, the flame does not penetrate from the side of the funnel mouth, but penetrates from the side of the funnel nose for an obstacle in the form of a funnel. Numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible medium in the low Mach number approximation with the representation of a chemical process as a single reaction and the simplest chain mechanism made it possible to describe qualitatively the experimental laws. Within the framework of an approximate consideration using the Navier-Stokes equations in a compressible reacting medium, the features of flame propagation through a conical obstacle with additional holes on the converging generatrix are qualitatively described. The flame does not penetrate through the central hole of the converging tube, but only penetrates through the central hole of the diffuser, even if there are holes in the generatrix of the cone. The simulation carried out in small volumes suggests that in the event of an emergency situation, the flame will not penetrate through the open valve located in the center of the confuser located in the pipe. In this case, the most effective two-sided obstacle to the flame propagation in the pipe can be a system of two confusers, the funnels of which are located on the pipe axis along the gas flow and against it. It is necessary  since an emergency situation can occur before and after the obstacle. A hole or valve can be located in the middle.

Using color filming and visualization of a gas flow, the features of the penetration of the flame front through rectangular holes in comparison with round holes are experimentally investigated. It is shown that the length of the “flame jump” after the hole in the obstacle is mainly determined by the time of occurrence of the laminar-turbulent transition, and not by the ignition delay period.

Using 4D spectroscopy combined with high-speed color filming, it was found that C2 radicals in detectable amounts and the main heat release in the process of chemical transformation are observed after the flame passes the first obstacle, i.e. after turbulization of the gas flow. The obtained result means that the used experimental technique allows separating “cold” and “hot” flames in time and space in one experiment. The result obtained is also important for the verification of numerical models of methane combustion. In addition, the results obtained are important for solving explosion safety problems for volumes with complex geometry.

It was found that the ignition temperature of a 40% of H2 - air mixture in the presence of metallic palladium (70 °C, 1 atm) is ~ 200 °C lower than above the platinum surface (260 °C, 1 atm). In addition, Pd initiates the ignition of mixtures (30-60% H2 + 70-40% CH4) stoichiome + air; Pt foil does not initiate combustion of these mixtures up to 450 °C. The effective activation energy of ignition over Pd is estimated as ~ 3.5 kcal/mol.

It was found that the temperature of the ignition limit of mixtures of 30% methane + 70% hydrogen + air (q = 0.9, T = 317 °C) and 30% propane + 70% hydrogen + air (q = 1, 106 °C) above the surface of palladium at 1, 75 atm, measured by the “approach from below” method in temperature, decreases during subsequent ignitions. It is 270 °C for a mixture containing hydrogen-methane and 32 °C for a mixture containing hydrogen-propane. The flammability limit returns to the initial value after the reactor is treated with oxygen or air, i.e. hysteresis takes place. The temperature of the ignition limit of mixtures of 30% (C2, C4, C5, C6) + 70% H2 + air (q = 0.6, 1.1, 1.2, 1.2, respectively) above the palladium surface is 19 ÷ 35 °C at 1.75 atm; there is no hysteresis. It is shown that the weak (q = 0.6) mixture of 30 ethane + 70% hydrogen + air has the lowest temperature of the ignition limit: 24 °C at 1 atm. The effective activation energy for the ignition of mixtures over palladium is estimated as ~ 2.4 ± 1 kcal / mol. It was found that the separation of the CH and Na emission bands in time during the combustion of a mixture of 30% propane + 70% H2 + air (q = 1), found in this work, is due to the occurrence of hydrodynamic instability of the flame when it touches the end of the cylindrical reactor.   

It was found that the ignition temperatures of hydrogen - oxygen and hydrogen - methane - oxygen mixtures with heated wires of palladium, platinum, nichrome and kantal (fechral) at a total pressure of 40 Torr increase during a decrease in the hydrogen content in the mixture. Only heated palladium wire has a noticeable catalytic effect. A qualitative numerical calculation made it possible to reveal the role of the additional branching reaction H + HO2 → 2OH in the process of ignition initiation by a heated wire.

The regularities of the combustion of copper and tungsten nanopowders have been established. Copper nanopowders are obtained by the method of hydrogen reduction (chemical and metallurgical method) and thermal decomposition of copper citrate and formate. It was shown that copper nanopowder synthesized from copper citrate is not pyrophoric. Combustion of this copper nanopowder can be initiated by an external source, with the combustion wave velocity being 1.3 ± 0.3 mm/s. The nanopowder has a ~ 4 times larger specific surface (45 ± 5 m2/g) than the nanopowder obtained by the hydrogen reduction method, practically does not contain oxides and is stable in atmospheric air. Copper nanopowder obtained by the chemical and metallurgical method is pyrophoric and therefore requires passivation, but its passivation leads to the formation of noticeable amounts of copper oxides. The combustion rates of passivated and non-passivated copper nanopowder obtained by the chemical and metallurgical method are the same and amount to 0.3 ± 0.04 mm/s. The dynamics of temperature fields during the ignition and combustion of copper nanopowders obtained by various methods has been investigated.

Tungsten nanopowders W were synthesized by reduction of tungsten trioxide with hydrogen (chemical metallurgy method) at 440 ÷ 640 °C from samples with different specific surface: 2 m2 / g (1), 11 m2 / g (2), 0.8 m2 / g (3). It is shown that the W nanopowder synthesized at 640 °C for all three precursors used is non-pyrophoric a-W. Its combustion can be initiated by an external source. Combustion develops in a spatially non-uniform regime. Nanopowder synthesized at 480 °C from tungsten oxide grades 1 and 2 is a mixture of a-W, b-W and WO2.9; this powder is pyrophoric. It was found that the passivated W nanopowder synthesized at 480 °C from grade 3 tungsten oxide is W with traces of WO3 and WO2.9. The temperature range of the synthesis b-W obtained in this work is very small: 470 ÷ 490 °C. The specific surface area of ​​-W nanopowders is 10 ± 2 m2/g. For the b-W mixture with traces of WO3 and WO2.9, it is 18 ± 1 m2/g. The dynamics of temperature fields during the ignition and combustion of tungsten nanopowders obtained at different temperatures has been investigated.    

Experimental studies of the combustion features of compact samples made of unpassivated iron nanopowders and the effect of the porosity of these compact samples on the dynamics of their heating in air are described. It was found that the propagation velocity of the combustion front and the maximum combustion temperature of compacted samples made of unpassivated iron nanopowders decrease with increasing compact density.

 

 

Introduction

 

Optical methods have two indisputable advantages:  non-contact and panoramic. In other words, they do not affect the "object - air" system and in many cases make it possible to obtain data in the form of an image at once over the entire flow field or, for example, a flame front. Among the optical methods, one can single out the methods of visualizing the flow, which are no less important than measuring its parameters, because they give a visual representation of the general picture of the flow process in a certain medium or the propagation of the combustion front. It is clear that it is important to visualize the flows and fronts of chemical reactions in liquids or gases that arise spontaneously or under the influence of external sources initiated by various physical factors (ultrasound, laser radiation, magnetic and electric fields, etc.). In flows of liquids and gases, the fields of velocities, pressure and temperature are usually visualized. Visualization of chemical processes in flow conditions using a variety of methods and means is used to establish their qualitative characteristics: observation of the optical spectrum of a chemical reaction, streamlines, boundary layer separation regions, vortices and shock waves, flow states (laminar or turbulent, stationary or unsteady, etc. .). Visualization of the fronts of chemical reactions and flows is carried out by both non-optical and optical methods. Non-optical (direct) visualization of gas and liquid flows includes: the method of introducing rags of smoke (for gas) or colored liquid (for hydrodynamic flows) into the flow, the method of tracing particles. It includes also the the method of applying drops or films of a specific liquid (colored, with solid impurities or fluorescent), the use of a thin light sheet (laser sheet) to illuminate particles, etc. Optical methods make it possible to visualize flows using optical instruments and installations. These methods provide visualization of inhomogeneous flows of reacting gas and liquid, qualitative analysis of the state and structure of the flow, non-contact and inertialess measurement simultaneously within the entire visualized section of the flow of the flux density.

The first experiments with chronophotography, which made it possible to record the movement of an object by photographing its individual phases at short equal intervals of time, and which became the prototype of cinematography, were carried out for the same purposes. They allowed to study the imperceptible phenomena. Modern equipment allows you to shoot from several thousand to tens of millions of frames per second, making it possible to observe very fast processes. High-speed digital devices are used to analyze many fast-moving phenomena, in particular, to analyze the processes of flame propagation, transition of combustion to detonation, spark discharges and other phenomena. The frames obtained in laboratory conditions make it possible to measure the parameters of the medium flows, the velocity and structure of the combustion fronts, and ultimately present the visualization results in a form that is convenient for understanding and modeling. Modern electronic recording devices, as a rule, do not contain moving parts that limit performance. CCD-matrices allow registering fast processes with a frequency of up to 1000 frames per second. The CMOS sensors made it possible to shoot millions of frames per second and completely replace film. The speed level reached at the beginning of the decade at 0.6 trillion frames per second made it possible to record the movement of the light front of a pulsed laser. Even some digital compact cameras, such as the Casio Exilim series, are equipped with high-speed video recording at up to 1200 frames per second at reduced frame sizes. For accelerated filming, special digital cinema cameras are used, the most famous of which are Phantom devices capable of shooting up to a million frames per second, infrared video cameras (for example, Xeva-2.35-320) are already capable of recording radiation with an acceptable resolution of up to 400 frames per second.

At present, along with the above visualization methods, remote sensing methods for studying various processes using the latest optoelectronic devices are becoming more and more widespread. This book will focus on the use of hyperspectrometers, the domestic line of which is being intensively developed, unique UV-C sensors, as well as the combined use of hyperspectrometers and high-speed color filming. Hyperspectrometers are devices that allow remote registration of reflected, scattered and upward radiation to obtain its spectrum in a wide range of wavelengths. Measurements in the range from several hundred to a thousand spectral channels are called hyperspectral, and a hyperspectral image sensor is a device that simultaneously measures spectral and spatial coordinates. This book examines domestic lines of hyperspectrometers, which at one point in time register a narrow band of emitting, reflecting or scattering radiation surface (the so-called push broom systems). Registration is carried out on a two-dimensional matrix, along one coordinate of which the spatial coordinate x is fixed (along a narrow strip of the recorded surface), and along the other - the spectral one. As a rule, the third coordinate y is formed due to the movement of the hyperspectrometer by some kind of carrier (airplane, helicopter, car, satellite), or this movement is carried out using a rotary device. In addition to the two standard coordinates x and y, the spectral coordinate and the intensity of the spectral line are added, which provides a 4D dimension of the data space. If the hyperspectrometer is in the state of rest, then since the data is read from the recording device of the hyperspectrometer in frames accumulated on the recording device for a certain time, in this case (instead of the y coordinate) the t-time coordinate appears. It becomes possible to study the temporal characteristics of the processes occurring on a narrow strip

of the surface, i.e. the 4D dimension is formed by the x coordinate, the spectral coordinate - by the wavelength l, the intensity of the spectral line I and the time t.

In the first Chapter of this book, methods and means of remote shooting in the optical range are considered. The advantages of using multispectral multisensory imaging, which significantly increase the efficiency of remote analysis of both images and combustion and explosion processes, are demonstrated. In the second Chapter, optoelectronic devices are considered, such as the domestic line of hyperspectral sensors of the optical range and the UV-C sensor, developed and created at «SPC «Reagent» CJSC. The following Chapters are devoted to the results of studying combustion and explosion processes, including with the help of optoelectronic devices. In the third Chapter, a study of instabilities arising from the propagation of hydrogen and hydrocarbon flames by the method of high-speed filming is carried out. The regimes of flame propagation during combustion of weak hydrogen-air mixtures in the presence of additives under conditions of central initiation by the method of high-speed filming are considered. The onset of acoustic instability in hydrogen-air mixtures in a closed reactor with central initiation by a spark discharge is analyzed. The regularities of the interaction of spherical flames of hydrogen-air and methane-air mixtures with fine-mesh obstacles at central initiation by a spark discharge have been established. The features of thermal ignition in gas eddies are investigated. The fourth Chapter presents the results of studying the patterns of propagation of an unstable flame front using optical 4D spectroscopy and color high-speed filming. The fifth Chapter describes the use of a high-speed optical multidimensional technique to establish the characteristics of ignition and combustion of a 40% H2 - air mixture in the presence of platinum metal. In the sixth Chapter, 4D spectroscopy and high-speed filming are used to establish the gasdynamic and kinetic features of the penetration of methane-oxygen flames through obstacles. The gasdynamic and kinetic features of the penetration of a methane-oxygen flame through single holes and fine-mesh obstacles have been investigated. The regularities of the penetration of flames of dilute mixtures of methane with oxygen through a single hole in a flat obstacle, diffuser, confuser and combined obstacles have been established. The factors determining the length of the flame jump after penetration through a small hole are revealed. The spectral features of the emission of methane-oxygen flames under the conditions of penetration through obstacles have been established.

The seventh Chapter describes the establishment of the basic laws of combustion of mixtures of hydrogen-air and hydrogen-hydrocarbon (C1 - C6) -air above the surface of palladium metal with the combined use of a hyperspectral sensor and high-speed color filming. The combustion of mixtures hydrogen-air and hydrogen-methane-air over the palladium surface, the ignition of mixtures hydrogen - hydrocarbon (C1-C6) - air over the palladium surface at pressures of 1÷2 atm. Regularities are established and numerical simulation of the ignition of hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-methane-oxygen mixtures by heated wires at low pressure is carried out. The Eighth Chapter is devoted to the establishment of the laws governing the combustion of copper, tungsten and iron nanopowders and compacted samples of iron nanopowders by the methods of visible and infrared filming.

 

 

Chapter 1. Methods and means of remote sensing in the optical range.

 

Methods and means of remote sensing in the optical range are considered. The advantages of using multispectral multisensor sensing, which significantly increase the efficiency of remote analysis of both images and combustion and explosion processes, are demonstrated.

Keywords: video camera, hyperspectrometer, thermal imager, UV sensor, remote sensing, image, alignment

 

Since the seventies of the last century, remote sensing methods in the optical range have undergone significant changes. In particular, such effective means of remote sensing as spectrozonal, multispectral and hyperspectral survey have appeared. Accordingly, adequate processing methods were developed, taking into account the spectral features of the interaction of waves of various ranges with the material of the probed objects and their morphological structure. We will point out here only the methods of spectral synthesis, neural network algorithms and the method of principal components.

At the same time, all these methods related only to the processing of data obtained by one sensor. However, an approach based on the processing of multispectral data obtained by different sensors when they simultaneously shoot the same scene is of certain interest. It is obvious that sensors can have different spatial resolution, different angular field of view, sensitivity, etc.

This approach is a development of the principle of multispectral sensing, since the creation of a single device that would cover the entire optical range from ultraviolet to far infrared and would have high values ​​of spatial and spectral resolution seems to be very problematic.

In this regard, the purpose of this Chapter is to demonstrate the capabilities of multisensory imaging aimed at improving the efficiency of vision systems through the joint analysis of images obtained in different wavelength ranges. In particular, it is shown that the joint analysis of data from different sensors can achieve a significant synergistic effect and create a basis for the so-called extended vision system [1].

Initially, used in aerial and space imaging of the Earth, as well as in laboratory experiments, panchromatic imaging made it possible to obtain images with a high spatial resolution (due to the higher sensitivity of black-and-white photographic film) (Fig. 1), but it did not provide the necessary distinguishability objects with color (spectral) differences.

In point of fact, the image contrast was formed by adding spectral contrasts in quadrature (according to "power") without taking into account their phase relationships during panchromatic, since different spectral contrasts could even be opposite and, when added, compensate each other. Of course, full compensation could not be due to their different weight ratios, but the result was a decrease in the total contrast.

So, it was necessary to "sweep" the radiation received by the sensor along the wavelength. The first intuitive solution to this problem was the use of first color and then multispectral photography, in which the photographic film was sensitized to different spectral zones. Finally, the so-called multi-zone method was developed, in which a camera was used with several lenses equipped with filters with different spectral transmission bands.

Fig. 1. City of Los Angeles (USA). The picture was taken by domestic optoelectronic equipment with a resolution of 1 m from an altitude of 475 km in the panchromatic range from the "Resurs-P" spacecraft in June 2013.

The solar radiation reflected from the sensing object passed through such a filter fell on a highly sensitive black-and-white film, forming a spectrozonal image on it. The black-and-white negatives (positives) obtained then were illuminated by light sources with real or conventional colors with the help of special devices and projected onto a common screen. At the same time, it was possible to interactively project on the screen both the negatives and the positives of the images in order to produce their in-phase summation, as well as to give each of them its own weight. This procedure is called "image synthesis".

The most famous of such space sensors is the MKF-6 multispectral space camera, which has successfully passed field tests on the "Soyuz-22" spacecraft. Even the first experiments with multispectral images have shown their high efficiency in recognizing objects in images (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Synthesized image in conditional colors of the territory of the "Mir" diamond quarry, obtained by the MKF-6 camera

 

A further development of multispectral imaging was the appearance of opto-electronic multispectral MSS scanners on the ERTS-1 satellites AS (Landsat), "Meteor", SPOT, etc. (see Fig. 3).

As the number of spectral channels of sensors increased and the methods of their processing were improved, the information content of the data obtained with their help enhanced. In particular, it was found that the maximum contrast of the probed objects occurs in the images corresponding to the first main component of the original multispectral data.

 

Fig. 3. Synthesized image of the territory of Northern Ukraine in conditional colors, obtained on the basis of imagery with a multispectral MSS scanner from the ERTS-1 AS (Landsat).

 

Spectrometers used on board aircraft and satellites, which possessed up to several hundred spectral channels (for example, "Spectrum-256"), provided only path survey and did not allow obtaining spectral images of the terrain and, therefore, could not compete with multispectral scanners. The situation has changed dramatically with the advent of laboratory and onboard hyperspectral sensors, which provide simultaneous acquisition of several hundred spectral images recorded on a photodetector matrix. One of the first representatives of the line of hyperspectrometers developed at «SPC «Reagent» CJSC [2] is shown in Fig. 4. Its main technical characteristics are shown below.

Spectral range, nm                                                                400 – 1000

Spectral resolution, nm                                                         1 – 10

Angular spatial resolution, rad                                              1· 10-3

Number of independent spectral channels                            224

Signal-to-noise ratio                                                              more 100

To demonstrate the possibilities of using such sensors, we present a hyperspectral image of the fire zone (Fig. 5), obtained with a VID-IK 3 hyperspectrometer (Fig. 5).

Fig. 4. Photo of a VID-IK3 hyperspectrometer.

 

Wave length, Nm

Wave length, Nm

Intensity, in production units

 

Надпись: Intensity, in production units

Intensity, in production units

Надпись: Intensity, in production unitsFig. 5. RGB image of a fire obtained by a hyperspectrometer: 1-area affected by fire; 2-area, not affected by fire.

 

At the bottom of Fig. 5, the emission spectra corresponding to the pixels highlighted on it (points 1 and 2) are shown. For these spectra, the absorption of solar radiation was not taken into account, therefore, the most characteristic peaks associated with the absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere are clearly visible on them. Spectrum 1 clearly shows a peak in the region of 450-700 nm associated with chlorophyll. In fig. 6, an image obtained based on the first main component of this hyperspectral image is shown. It is interesting because the boundaries of objects are more clearly visible on it than on the RGB image due to the higher contrast of the depicted objects.

Fig. 6. The first main component of the hyperspectral image.

 

Thus, the hyperspectral image obtained using the first principal component algorithm has the highest possible contrast achieved by a single sensor.

A detailed description of the line of hyperspectral sensors created at "SPC" "Reagent" CJSC, some of which were used to obtain the results described in the following Chapters, is given in Chapter 2. Naturally, the question of using a hyperspectrometer to study combustion and explosion processes in laboratory conditions has arisen. Thus, in [3, 4], the prospects for such a study were demonstrated and experimental results were presented that cannot be obtained by traditional emission optical spectroscopy.

 

For this, a laboratory hyperspectrometer was created for remote sensing of reflected, scattered and emitted light from a distance of 3 m (Fig. 7).

 

Описание: Рис 2а гиперспектрометр2-узкий

Fig. 7. The laboratory hyperspectrometer

 

It was shown that the created hyperspectrometer can be effectively used to control and study combustion and explosion processes. The possibility of studying the processes occurring during combustion and explosion simultaneously in a wide range of wavelengths turned out to be especially interesting. In addition, the hyperspectrometer provides measurement of the time dependence of the glow that occurs during combustion and explosion (see Fig. 8).

Intensity, produc.units

As mentioned in the introduction, digital compact-size cameras are capable of high-speed video recording at up to 1200 frames per second at reduced frame sizes. Such measurements make it possible to visualize the combustion and explosion processes (in particular, to register the movement of the flame front in time), but do not make it possible to determine the chemical composition of the products. Therefore, it turned out to be interesting to combine the simultaneous use of high-speed color [5] and hyperspectral photography for studying combustion and explosion processes.

Another promising optoelectronic sensor is an ultraviolet sensor in the UV-C range (UV-C sensor). Several versions of this device have been developed at «SPC «Reagent» CJSC. In fig. 9 the "Corona" sensor is shown [6]. A more detailed description and operation of the UV sensor is given in Chapter 2. This sensor detects radiation in the UV range of 250-280 nm. The UV range is interesting because solar UV radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer and the "Corona" sensor can register radiation in sunlight.

To illustrate the possibility of detailing such catastrophic phenomena as fire when using various sensors: the UV-device "Corona", a hyperspectrometer and a thermal imager, the fire centers were recorded.

 

Fig. 9. "Corona" UV-C sensor.

 

So, in fig. 10 and 11 a video image of the area with a fire in the background is shown. The "Corona" sensor is visible in the foreground.

Fig. 10. Video image of a scene with a fire that does not fall within the visible area of the "Corona" device.

Fig. 11. Video image of a scene with a fire falling into the viewing field of the "Corona" device.

 

Fig. 12. The image obtained by the "Corona" device for the case when the fire zone did not get into its viewing field (see Fig. 10).

 

 

Fig. 13. The image obtained by the "Corona" device for the case when the fire zone get into its field of viewing (see Fig. 11).

 

Analysis of the images in Fig. 10-13 allows us to conclude that the joint use of video and UV-C data makes it possible to accurately georeference the fire centers and study its structure. In addition, the UV image allows you to identify several local fire sources and determine its front. So, video filming gives a general view of the scene, while the UV image allows you to identify the fires inside the smoke plume.

The next step was to study the possibilities of combining video and thermal photography when they probe the same scene with a fire (Fig. 14 and 15, respectively). As in the previous case, Fig. 14 gives an overview description of the fire pattern and reveals the geometry of the smoke plume well. However, the thermal imaging image (Fig. 15) demonstrates the internal structure of the fire and allows you to highlight the open fire zone and, thus, show latent information hidden from the eye. Joint consideration of both images provides an informational synergistic effect that cannot be obtained separately by each sensor.

 

Fig. 14. Video image of the fire zone.

     

 

Fig. 15. Image of the fire zone, obtained with a thermal imager in the range of 8-14 microns.

Conclusions for Chapter 1

 

This Chapter discusses a method for multispectral analysis of remote sensing data using various sensors and assesses the capabilities of multisensor imagery carried out in a wide range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. Various combinations of data make it possible to reveal the detailed structure of the analyzed scene, study the spectral composition of the radiation of objects and distinguish point sources by it. The prospects of using various sensors for studying combustion and explosion processes are shown. The results of using different sensors will be demonstrated in subsequent Chapters.

 

                                     References for Chapter 1.

 

1.Vision system overview, C&PS Flight Technical Services, 2013. https://www.mygdc.com/ assets / public_files / gdc_services / pilot_services / presentations / Vision_Systems_Overview.pdf

2. Rodionov I. D., Rodionov A. I., Vedeshin L. A., Vinogradov A. N., Yegorov V.V.,. Kalinin A.P. Aviation hyperspectral complexes for solving problems of remote sensing, Earth exploration from space. 2013. No. 6. P. 81-93.

3. Kalinin A. P., Orlov A. G., Rodionov A. I. Troshin K. Ya. Demonstration of the possibility of studying combustion and explosion processes using remote hyperspectral sensing, Physical-chemical kinetics in gas dynamics. 2009. Volume 8. 12 p. http://www.chemphys.edu.ru/pdf/2009-06-18-001.pdf

4. Kalinin A. P., Troshin K. Ya. Orlov A. G. Rodionov A. I. Hyperspectrometer as a system for monitoring and studying combustion and explosion processes, Sensors and Systems, 2008, No. 12, pp.19-21.

5. RF patent. Vinogradov A. N., Kalinin A. P., Rodionov I. D., Rodionov A. I., Rodionova I. P., Rubtsov N. M., Chernysh V. I., Tsvetkov G. I., Troshin K.Ya. Device for remote study of combustion and explosion processes using hyperspectrometry and high-speed photography, Utility model. Patent No. 158856 dated July 22, 2015 Published on January 20, 2016 Bull. No. 2.

6. Belov A. A., Egorov V. V., Kalinin A. P., Korovin, Rodionov A. I., Rodionov I. D., Stepanov S. N. Ultraviolet Monophoton Sensor "Korona" Automation and Remote Control, 2014, Vol. 75, No. 12, pp. 345-349, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014. (ISSN 0005-1179).

 

Chapter 2. Optoelectronic devices and methods for studying combustion and explosion processes

 

Optoelectronic devices such as the domestic line of hyperspectral sensors of the optical range and the UV-C sensor, developed and created at «SPC «Reagent» CJSC are considered. A photo-integrated CMOS sensor performs registration of hyperspectral images. The main technical characteristics of the sensors and examples of hyperspectral RGB images obtained during the tests are presented.

Key words: hyperspectrometer, objective, diaphragm bundle, dispersing device, photo-integrated matrix, prism, resolution, sensor

 

The optoelectronic devices that will be discussed in this chapter include hyperspectrometers and ultraviolet sensors in the wavelength range of 250-280 nm (UV-C sensors). As mentioned in Chapter 1, modern hyperspectrometers provide detailed spatial and spectral information about the type and state of probed natural and anthropogenic objects on the earth's surface. It also gives information about various dynamic processes, for example, combustion and explosion processes, which will be discussed below. The interest shown in such devices is explained by the fact that due to the Gaussian distribution of the instantaneous values ​​of the electromagnetic field entering the sensor lens. All the useful information contained in the optical signal is displayed in the spectrum.

The more accurately the spectrum envelope of the received radiation is reproduced, the more information can be extracted from it [1]. It is no coincidence, therefore, that the developers strive to increase the number of spectral channels and higher spectral resolution of sensors from units of spectral channels of multispectral devices to several hundred and thousands of channels in hyperspectrometers.

Hyperspectrometers can be used with aircraft (aircraft, helicopters, uncrewed aerial vehicles), satellites, in ground and laboratory research. The data of hyperspectral measurements are especially useful for solving such complex problems as detecting small objects, identifying the composition of the objects under study and dynamic processes, differentiating closely related classes of objects, assessing biochemical and geophysical parameters, etc. Only hyperspectral measurements can reveal small spectral differences between individual elements of an object.

A hyperspectrometer is an optoelectronic sensor that allows simultaneous measurement of spectral and spatial coordinates. This chapter deals with push broom hyperspectrometers, which measure a narrow band of emitting, reflecting or scattering surfaces. Registration is carried out on a two-dimensional matrix, along one coordinate of which the spatial coordinate x is fixed (along a narrow band of the recorded surface), and along the other - the spectral one. As a rule, the third coordinate y is formed due to the movement of the hyperspectrometer by some kind of carrier (airplane, helicopter, car, satellite), or this movement is carried out using a rotating device. In fig. 1, the process of hyperspectral remote sensing using a delivery aircraft is demonstrated.

The basic concept of hyperspectral imaging is the "hypercube" shown in Fig. 2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 1. Remote sensing of the Earth by a push broom hyperspectrometer.

This is the name of the set of data formed by the values of the intensity of light emitted or reflected from the investigated two-dimensional surface, conventionally divided into image elements - the pixels of the emitted light signal.

Fig. 2. Hyperspectral cube.

 

In addition to the two standard coordinates X and Y, the spectral coordinate l and the intensity of the spectral line are added, which provides the 4D dimension of the data space. If the hyperspectrometer is at rest (for example, when registering combustion and explosion processes), then, since the data sampling from the hyperspectrometer's recording device occurs in frames accumulated on the hyperspectrometer's recording device for a certain time, in this case (instead of the Y coordinate) coordinate t - time occurs. In other words, it becomes possible to study the temporal characteristics of the processes occurring on a narrow strip of the surface. In this case, the 4D array is formed by the x coordinate, the spectral coordinate - by the wavelength l, the intensity of the spectral line I and the time t.

Unfortunately, in Russia in this branch of ​​technology there was a certain lag behind the developments carried out by a number of foreign countries. significant efforts are being made to create promising hyperspectral sensors to correct radically the current situation in Russia. In particular, the team of employees of SPC"Reagent" CJSC, the Space Research Institute RAS, the Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics RAS has been developing hyperspectral sensors of the optical range for many years [2-5]. The experience accumulated in the course of these developments made it possible to create a line of hyperspectrometers of the 0.30 - 1.0 µm range in terms of their main technical characteristics, which are not inferior to similar foreign models.

When designing a line of hyperspectrometers, special attention was paid to the calculation of their optical schemes, the choice of dispersive devices and detectors. In this regard, the purpose of this Chapter is to describe the developed line of hyperspectral modules operating in the specified range, their tactical and technical characteristics, the results of field experiments performed with their help, as well as possible areas of application of a scientific and applied nature, in particular, for remote sensing of combustion and explosion processes.

The selection of a narrow band of the probed object, which is necessary for the operation of the hyperspectrometer in the push broom mode, is performed by means of a slit located in the diaphragm assembly. The diaphragm bundle is placed in the best image plane of the input lens (focal plane). When designing hyperspectral modules of the 0.30-1.0 µm range, the developers were tasked with obtaining the maximum possible values ​​for the spatial and spectral resolution at the given values ​​of the field of viewing. In this regard, an approach was used based on the search for various kinds of compromise solutions, which made it possible to find the optimal design option for which the optical system of hyperspectral modules was calculated. In particular, it was decided to create several hyperspectral modules with the ability to cover the entire specified spectral range.

In the course of model experiments, using the Zemax program, calculations of the path of the rays in the hyperspectrometer and the circle of confusion of the spot in the plane of the photo-integrated matrix were performed to assess the potential spatial resolution of the hyperspectral modules. Based on these calculations, the designs of the hyperspectral modules were selected. In fig. 3 the path of rays in one of the hyperspectral modules (which was later called VID-IK3) is shown. In Fig. 4 an example of calculating the circle of confusion for the same module at different viewing angles of a point source (00, 6.30, 9.00, 12.60 and 180 - points 1-5) and for two wavelengths (450 and 900 nm) is presented. It follows from an analysis of Fig. 4 that the sizes of the spots lie in the range from 8 to 16 μm, which with a focal length of the module of 17 mm will correspond to the dimensions of a pixel on the earth's surface from a height of exposure of 1 km - from 0.3 to 0.6 m.

Based on the calculations performed, an experimental series of hyperspectrometers was manufactured. Various dispersive elements can be used in hyperspectrometers: a diffraction grating, a holographic grating, a prism, a combination of prisms, a combination of optical wedges and a diffraction grating, etc. One of the simplest options for implementing a dispersing element is a glass prism.

 

Fig. 3. Calculated ray path in the VID-IK3 hyperspectral module (1 - entrance lens, 2 - diaphragm unit with a slit, 3 - collimator, 4 - dispersive element, 5 - projection lens, 6 - photo-integrated matrix)

 

For spectral instruments, prisms are made from flints and heavy flints, since these glasses have high-refractive indices and dispersion. Both 600 refractive angle prisms and a constant deflection prism were used.

spot position in the plane of the photodetector matrix

 

Fig. 4. Circle of confusion a point in the image plane: a - for a wavelength of 450 nm; b - for a wavelength of 900 nm.

 

In the case of a prism with a refractive angle of 600, there is still no total internal reflection from the second surface and a high dispersion is achieved. In one of the hyperspectral modules, in order to reduce its size, a prism of constant deflection angle of 900 (Abbe prism) was used (see Fig. 3, structural element 4). All hyperspectral modules have the same functional diagram (see Fig. 5). Each module of the line is made in the form of a monoblock without a single fixing plate.

Measurements of the spectral resolution of the hyperspectral modules were carried out.

 

Fig. 5. Functional diagram of hyperspectral modules (correspondence of numbers to elements coincides with Fig. 3).

In fig. 6, digit 1 shows the measured dependence of the resolution capability Dl of the VID-IK3 module on the wavelength, and digit 2 shows the fitting, where l  is the wavelength, which corresponds to theoretical calculations for a prism hyperspectrometer. 

Spectral resolution, Nm

 

 

 

 

 

Главы
1. INTRODUCTION
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

2. Methods and means of remote sensing in the optical range
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

3. Optoelectronic devices and methods for studying combustion and explosion processes
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

4. Investigation of the instabilities arising from the hydrogen and hydrocarbon flames propagation by the method of high-speed filming
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

5. Detecting the regularities of propagation of an unstable flame front using optical 4D spectroscopy and color high-speed filming
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

6. The use of high-speed optical multidimensional technique to determine the characteristics of ignition and combustion of 40% H2 - air mix in the presence of platinum metal
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

7. Determining the gas-dynamic and kinetic features of the penetration of methane-oxygen flames through obstacles by using 4D spectroscopy and high-speed filming
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

8. Study of the combustion of hydrogen-air and hydrogen-hydrocarbon (C1- C6) -air mixtures over the surface of palladium metal with the combined use of a hyperspectral sensor and high-speed color filming
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

9. Determination of the features of combustion of nanopowders and their compacted samples by the methods of visible and infrared filming
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

10. CONCLUSIONS
Авторы главы Rubtsov Nickolai Mikhailovich , Alymov Mikhail Ivanovich , Kalinin Alexander Petrovich , Vinogradov Alexey Nikolaevich , Rodionov Alexey Igorevich , Troshin Kirill Yakovlevich

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