MANAGEMENT OF LABOR INCENTIVES: MONOGRAPH
Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The monograph is devoted to the problem of effective incentives for personnel as one of the most acute in the theory and practice of modern management. The paper considers the main stages of labor incentives , the specifics of personnel management from the standpoint of a motivational approach, suggests ways to assess the quality of incentive systems, analyzes the motivational structure of the employee's personality. The definitions, classifications, typologies and models proposed in the monograph can be used not only for educational and methodological purposes, but also in the direct practice of personnel management. The monograph is addressed to specialists in personnel management, students, graduate students, teachers, as well as everyone who is interested in the field of HR management.

Ключевые слова:
Management, labor incentives, personnel, motivation, personnel management
Текст
Текст произведения (PDF): Читать Скачать

 

INTRODUCTION

Currently, the problem of studying the motivation and incentives of personnel is of interest among researchers and practitioners. Now there is no doubt that it is necessary to develop new approaches to studying this problem, as well as to create new conditions that stimulate the productive work of employees, paying special attention to personnel training, an individual approach to each employee. However, these events are of an episodic nature, not representing a balanced and well-thought-out system.

The successful work of an organization is possible only if the motivational and stimulating factors contribute to the solution of its strategic tasks. The policy of incentivizing the company's personnel should be built taking into account external and internal factors. External factors include changes in the economic, political, socio-cultural environment. Internal factors - the peculiarities of the functioning of the organization, as well as the goals, objectives and needs of employees. Accordingly, the policy of the enterprise should protect and ensure the implementation of the rights of workers who are able and willing to work with high labor efficiency, guaranteeing them a decent quality of working life for the effective reproduction of their labor potential. Stimulation of highly productive labor allows to ensure, along with the ability to work, the formation of a new labor consciousness and work ethic.

At the organizational level, a certain revision of the labor relations between an employee and an entrepreneur traditionally accepted at enterprises will be required, implying a qualitatively new approach to stimulating labor.

The topic of researching the quality of incentive systems is relevant, since it affects the public interests of a modern state, developing effective and motivated labor of the population, and ensures not only economic results, but also socio-cultural changes.

The main purpose of this book is to study the quality management system for labor incentives, which ensures the design of a set of effective techniques for influencing personnel in organizations.

The monograph reveals the role and place of labor incentives in the personnel management system; the essence of the incentive process is revealed on the basis of an analysis of sociological approaches and existing concepts that study the processes and technologies of labor incentives; the motivational structure of the personality of workers in modern organizations is analyzed.

The theoretical and methodological basis of the monograph was the works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of sociology, sociology of management, management, economic sociology. As a methodological basis for the study, a systematic approach was used, as well as the principle of structural and functional analysis, which makes it possible to determine the meaning of a social phenomenon based on its relationship to the social whole; the principle of logical analysis, which makes it possible to draw conclusions based on the generalization of many separate facts.

            The empirical basis of the work was made up of materials from applied sociological research:

1. "Motivation of the professional activity of employees of the organization." The study includes a standardized continuous survey of employees of two commercial enterprises (at least 89% of employees of these enterprises were interviewed, the sample is representative by gender and position).

2. "Labor expectations of employees of the organization." The study includes a standardized continuous survey of employees of two enterprises (at least 84% of employees of these enterprises were interviewed, the sample is representative by gender and position).

The trend of modernization of the cultural and within the organizational space has received resonance in society, the consequences of which can be considered the emergence of new social mechanisms for the regulation of social and industrial relations. Thus, it became necessary to consider a whole range of factors affecting the activities of the labor collective and, at the same time, the nature of the process of building and functioning of the personnel incentive system, in order to establish criteria for the effectiveness and quality of such systems.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RESEARCHING STAFF STIMULATION SYSTEMS

 

1.1. Labor incentives as a basic element of personnel management

      The implementation of economic reforms in Russia has led to the fact that the position of the organization has radically changed, its status has been transformed.

Currently, there have been changes in the relationship between the manager and subordinates. All this sharply raised the question of how to effectively and efficiently carry out management in the new conditions. “Until recently, the very concept of «personnel management» was absent in our management practice. The management system of each organization had only a functional subsystem for personnel management and social development of the team, but most of the work on personnel management was performed by line managers of departments”[1]The personnel work carried out at enterprises has ceased to meet the requirements of the time, and a new science has come to replace it - personnel management.

Human resource management of an organization is understood by us as a purposeful activity of the management of the organization, heads and specialists of departments to develop the concept and strategy of the personnel use policy, principles and methods of using personnel[2]

Personnel management [3] of an organization covers a wide range of functions:

• recruitment, selection and recruitment of personnel;

• business assessment of personnel during admission, certification, selection;

• vocational guidance and work adaptation;

• stimulation of labor activity of personnel and its use;

• work organization and adherence to business ethics;

• conflict and stress management;

• ensuring the safety of personnel;

• management of innovations in personnel work;

• training, professional development and retraining of personnel;

• management of business career and service and professional advancement;

• managing the behavior of personnel in the organization;

• management of social development;

• release of personnel.

All these components are closely intertwined and are aimed, first of all, at creating such working conditions that would contribute to the fullest possible disclosure of the employee's labor potential.

The unique professional core of human resources is the main competitive advantage of any company seeking to strengthen its position in the market. In the 21st century this provision will become the law of successful entrepreneurship, since only mobile personnel oriented towards continuous development and improvement can adapt to unpredictable and often ambiguous changes in the market environment.

The turn of the 20th and 21st centuries saw changes in corporate governance associated with the globalization of markets and industrial structure, with shifts in the composition of jobs and labor force demographics, with a focus on high income for owners. These changes, which affected not only the business as such, but also the process of personnel work in companies, can be summarized as follows[4]

• from autonomous self-sufficiency - to unlimited partnership;

• from hierarchical and / or centralized structures - to plastic and decentralized structures;

• from patriarchal models of management - to delegation of powers;

• from a focus on large volumes and low cost - to focus on quality, speed and innovation;

• from error-free performance to measurable improvements;

• from a closed organizational system to an open system.

The changes that have taken place could not but affect such an important resource of any organization as a person: the changes found their expression in the approach to personnel, in the understanding of the fact that a radical revision of labor management methods is necessary, since both the work itself and the subject performing it have changed. The changes that have occurred can be expressed in the following facts[5]:

• narrow specialization and limited responsibility for the assigned work was replaced by broad professional and job profiles;

• flexible choice of the trajectory of professional development has replaced a clearly planned career path;

• from evading feedback from subordinates of the organization came to its active search;

• secret consideration of factors of success, vacancies and selection of specialists was replaced by an open discussion of the level of competence of employees, available vacancies and ways to fill them.

It should be noted that in the course of social reforms, relations have changed not only along the line «leader – subordinate», but also on the line «subordinate – leader». First of all, this is reflected in the concept of personnel management [6], in the system of theoretical and methodological views on understanding and defining the essence, content, goals, objectives, criteria, principles and methods of personnel management, as well as organizational and practical approaches to the formation of a mechanism for its implementation in specific conditions of functioning of organizations.

Now it is based on the following factors:

1. the growing role of the employee's personality;

2. knowledge of his motivational attitudes;

3.the ability to form and direct them in accordance with the tasks facing the organization[7].

Understanding the fact that each person is unique and is, first of all, a person with his own characteristics, desires and needs, made it possible to determine the individual differences between employees, which can be divided into three large groups[8]:

1. demographic characteristics (age, gender, etc.);

2. competence (inclinations and abilities, etc.);

3. psychological characteristics (value system, attitude to work, character, etc.).

Demographic characteristics define a person in terms of his physiological differences, which may predetermine his other characteristics in the future. Competence includes the abilities and inclinations of a person that are necessary for him in the work. Abilities can be defined as personality characteristics that allow one to perform certain labor functions. Psychological characteristics are determined by the presence in individuals of various systems of life values, motives of behavior, etc. These characteristics in a certain way predetermine and form the motivational structure of the employee's person[9].

All of the listed individual differences leave their imprint on the performance of work tasks and functions, on the type of work behavior of the employee. Researchers note that managers who do not take into account the specific characteristics of workers are faced with the problem of low labor productivity, with a lack of personal interest in the results of labor among staff.

Each named feature can affect labor productivity through the impact on human abilities. It is the consideration of these features and unique personality traits that makes it possible to form appropriate labor behavior among staff. Such a differentiated approach to the employee makes it possible to use his unique abilities and individual personality characteristics for the benefit of the organization. As a result of this approach, the organization forms the work behavior it needs, and the staff gets the opportunity to develop their abilities and meet their needs.

As a result of the evolution of approaches to managing a person in an organization, «the view of labor as a conscious, purposefully directed activity, the application of common efforts by people to create useful products that go to satisfy their material and spiritual needs, has now been established. At the same time, work is a means of self-expression and self-affirmation of the individual, the realization of his experience, intellectual and creative potential»[10].

With the approach of society to the information age, the role of the individual has significantly increased in all spheres of life. «A person becomes an active subject of new social relations, and therefore a subject of social planning at all levels, including at the level of organizations»[11]. As a result, economic relations are increasingly leaning towards social guidelines, «and the existence and success of organizations depend on the development of an integral system of incentives for the intensification of human activity»[12].

Today, management practice has a huge arsenal of various means and methods of incentives, but there is still no incentive mechanism that would smooth out the contradictions between the goals of the employee and the employer in the distribution of the benefits of the organization. This was clearly proved by J. Habermas[13], who investigated the opposition of the human life world and the social system (organization).

All elements of personnel management, from hiring to dismissal, constitute a kind of labor incentive policy, be it personnel adaptation, business assessment or career guidance. The attractiveness of the organization for potential employees, its competitiveness in the labor market for qualified personnel and its stability and success directly depend on how these mechanisms work.

There is a direct and very close relationship between the stimulation of labor and the results of labor. Stimulation of labor can lead to changes in labor indicators, both in the direction of improvement and deterioration. It all depends on how the incentive system is developed, how it is promoted in the team and how the employee himself is perceived according to his ideas and expectations. It should be noted that at this stage, scientists and practitioners began to pay more and more attention to the issues of incentives and motivation. An example of this is various studies in the field of motivation, numerous monographs and articles written on this topic, holding conferences and training seminars.

Analysis of scientific literature on management theory, management, personnel management, management psychology shows that research in the field of staff motivation and incentives is carried out, as a rule, in established, classical forms. Research of personnel incentive systems is carried out mainly in the following scientific areas: (1) theories of motivation; (2) theoretical approaches aimed at solving applied problems of developing labor incentive mechanisms; (3) a special direction is made up of scientific works devoted to the effectiveness of personnel managementin an organization; (4) in the framework of the study of quality management as a new direction of modern management.

The first direction is a fundamental theoretical base, including methodological developments, various theories of motivation. First of all, these are scientific works devoted to the development of various theories of motivation: the works of A. Maslow[14], K. Alderfer [15], D. McClelland[16], F. Herzberg[17], L. Porter-Lawler[18], В V. Vroom[19], D.M. McGregor[20], B. Skinner[21]. A significant contribution to the theory and methodology of stimulation and motivation of labor was made by such outstanding social scientists as M. Weber [22], K. Levin[23], A.N. Leontiev[24], E. Durkheim[25], P. Blau[26], G. Homans[27] and others. Measures to increase motivation and stimulate labor by improving the socio-psychological climate in the organization and smoothing out industrial conflicts are analyzed in the monographs of C. Bernard, B.S. Rowntree, M.P. Follet[28].

The second direction - the solution of applied problems of the development of an incentive mechanism, in fact, is the concretization of the first direction in the designated scientific field. Here the attention of researchers is directed to the consideration of the formation and functioning of motivation, the typology of motivation, its strength, focus, employee satisfaction with their work. Among these studies, the works of scientists from the Research Institute of Labor of the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation I.F. Belyaeva [29], E. D. Katulsky and others.[30] The research of the classics of management and management practitioners F. Taylor, G. Ford [31], E. Mayo[32], M. Albert, M. Mescon, F. Khedouri[33] and others are devoted to the solution of applied problems of motivation, its formation and functioning, and the development of an incentive mechanism.

 It should be noted that in the thirties of the XX century sociology was proclaimed a bourgeois science, and large-scale research was not carried out for a long time. The revival of interest in the problems of motivation and stimulation of labor fell on the 60-80s of the last century and was reflected in the works of A.G. Zdravomyslov and V.A. Yadova[34], V.G. Podmarkova[35], S. Ya. Batyshev[36], Zh.T. Toshchenko[37] and others. In the works of V.I. Gerchikov[38], E.A.Utkin[39], Ya. Eidelman[40] and others, the features of stimulation and motivation in the transitional Russian society are considered.

Among the domestic scientists who have been studying the influence of the level of material interest on motivation, it should be noted A.K. Gastev[41], O.A. Yermansky[42].

In the 60s of the XX century, special interest was paid to the problems of the scientific organization of labor[43]. During these years, the works of such sociologists as L.N. Kogan[44], L.V. Sokhan[45], dedicated to the identification of factors (earnings and labor content) that affect job satisfaction. Another group of issues - labor motivation in the temporal aspect - was addressed by B.M. Teplov and A.S. Makarenko.

 

The third direction has developed on the basis of research on various mechanisms of motivation and approaches to personnel management. So, in the works of authors such as A.Ya. Kibanov [46], A.I. Prigogine[47], V.A. Spivak [48],investigated the most important aspects of labor motivation, the conditions for the social development of the organization and other components of the labor activity of personnel. The problems of the sociology of labor and incentives are considered in the works of modern scientists: T.I. Zaslavskaya[49], N.A. Volgin and others[50].

Among domestic researchers in the field of labor sociology and, in particular, the problems of stimulating and motivating labor activity, A.I. Kravchenko[51], V.N. Minina[52], V.I. Dobrenkov[53], V.S. Magun[54], A.G. Simakov[55], V. Ya. Elmeev[56], V.G. Ovsyannikov [57], Yu.V. Veselova [58], E.L. Shershneva [59], Е.V. Kapustkina [60], T.I. Mukhambetov [61], Yu.G. Odegov[62] and others. Work satisfaction has been addressed by scientists such as K. Zamfir[63], N.F. Naumova[64], V.D. Patrushev, I.A. Kalmakan[65] and others. At the present stage, an important contribution to the study of labor incentives  and motivation was made by such scientists as V.А. Mansurov[66], L.L. Rybakovsky[67], A.L. Temnitsky[68], V.V. Radaev[69], N.I. Dryakhlov[70], A.V. Tikhonov[71].

The fourth direction of studying the problem of labor incentives  is focused on the study of the quality of labor activity and quality management as a modern direction of management. This direction is represented by the works of such scientists as G.G. Azgaldov[72], V.G. Versan[73], A.V. Glichev[74], E. Deming[75], A.M. Zherebin[76], G.D. Krylova[77], V.M. Mishin[78], V.V. Okrepilov[79] and others.

The existing scientific directions of stimulating and motivating labor at the present time do not solve many problems facing management, in particular, the efficiency of labor management of the company's employees.

It should be noted that changes in the position of an organization in modern Russia entailed, first of all, changes in the position of a person in the organization, in the attitude towards him. Awareness of the uniqueness of each employee determined the impossibility of further application of unified management approaches and the need to formulate new management methods aimed at a specific person in a specific situation.

An analysis of modern trends in the personnel management system and its evolution has shown that today the most urgent issue is the management of a single person who can influence the results of the functioning of the entire organization, and even determine them. The predominance of the service sector in the economy affected the change in the specifics of labor, expressed in the transition from mechanized operations to the intellectualization of labor activity, which led to the expansion of the individual tools for the activities of employees, an increase in the quality of their decisions and intensified the problems of the effectiveness of the use of competencies and personal labor potential[80]. Features of labor potential have been studied by scientists since the third quarter of the twentieth century.

Actively studied in the 1970s and 1980s. the problem of motivation was associated with such an issue as the labor potential of a person. «The problem of the orientation (needs, motives, goals) of the personality is inextricably linked with the problem of its abilities (more broadly, the potential of the personality)»[81].

Until about the mid-70s. the concept of "labor potential" was reduced only to the qualification potential. But already at the end of the 1970s. “Labor potential” began to be considered as a set of personal abilities of an employee to work of a certain complexity and qualifications. A detailed scheme of labor potential was given by N.A. Pavlov, N.A. Ivanov, Yu.G. Odegov, K.L. Andreev, O.V. Stakanova.[82] According to them, in addition to the personal and production-qualification potential, the psychophysiological potential, which is the mental and physiological data of the employee, also plays a huge role. These are age, gender, type of nervous system, health status, organizational and creative abilities, etc. These scientists attributed to the personal components of labor potential: character traits, production and social activity, and to production and qualification - the level of professional training, the level of labor activity, work experience.

The idea of labor potential was further developed by T.I. Mukhambetov [83], who  in addition to his labor potential distinguish motivational potential. Motivational potential is formed at the junction of labor and personal potentials and is expressed in the form of a level of readiness for effective work. In the process of the development of scientific thought regarding the problems of motivation and incentives, the approach to personnel management also changed.

The interaction of business processes with existing theoretical doctrines led to the evolution of views on the concept of personnel management, the essence of which was transformed from management by instructions to management by goals and further to management by values. The latter type of management is able to reconcile the individual goals and values ​​of personnel with the goals and values ​​of the organization, which is a powerful tool for using the employee's labor potential. The effective use of the labor potential of each employee, as well as the creation of organizational conditions aimed at its formation and reproduction, is the actual goal of the personnel management system in modern conditions.

With this understanding of the goals of personnel management, labor incentives  becomes the leading tool, which presupposes the process of organizational impact on a person to induce him to appropriate labor actions, which in such a situation acquires special significance, since it allows to generalize and implement a whole range of issues of coordination of social, organizational and individual goals and values. Thus, it is logical to assume that labor incentives, considered as a tool of managerial influence, are the basic element of personnel management.

 

 

1.2. Concepts and approaches to the study of labor incentives

The concepts of «stimulation» and «stimulus» are by their nature rather complex, and the terms defining them are ambiguous. They have a wide variety of meanings and meanings that convey a person's motivation for action. Diverse understanding of the concept of incentive served as a prerequisite for the formation of different approaches to the definition of «motivation», and, consequently, «stimulation». 

Today, there are at least three well-established approaches to the definition of incentives: psychological, sociological and managerial.

The psychological approach is focused on the study of the inner world of the individual, in connection with which it is characterized by a special specificity of the definition of the concept of «motivation». The psychological approach to the problems of motivation is based on the works of such classics of psychology as Z. Freud, K. Jung and other foreign thinkers, in Russia it is presented in the works of L.S. Vygotsky, V.P. Galperin, S.L. Rubinstein and others.

In particular, the creator of the activity approach in psychology S.L. Rubinstein[84] proved that the psyche and consciousness are formed in activity, in activity and manifest themselves. Activity and consciousness form an organic unity (but not identity). Activity is not a set of reactions to an external stimulus, as it is regulated by consciousness. An important methodological setting for understanding motivation was proved by S.L. Rubinstein the principle of determinism, which explains that external causes act through internal conditions.

The most conceptually complete, reflecting the psychological paradigm, is the approach of A.N. Leontyev. He explains motivation by the fact that each individual is born with certain needs. The need as an internal force can be realized only in activity. In other words, the need initially appears only as a prerequisite, as a condition of activity, but as soon as the subject begins to act, its transformation takes place. The need ceases to be what it was – «a thing-in-itself». In the process of development of activity, this precondition turns into a result. Genetically primordial for human activity is the mismatch of motives and goals. Unlike goals, motives are not always actually realized by the subjects. True, it is possible to motivate them, but the motivation does not always contain an indication of their real motive.

Motives, in turn, are not separated from consciousness. Even when motives are not recognized, that is, when a person does not understand what prompts him to perform certain actions, they find their mental reflection, but in a special form - in the form of the emotional coloring of actions. Some motives, prompting an activity, give it a personal meaning - meaning-forming motives. Others, coexisting with them, playing the role of incentive factors, are deprived of a meaning-forming function - these are motives-incentives.[85]

A person is based on certain mental characteristics that appear before us in the form of needs, interests, aspirations, desires. The desire to realize them leads a person to the need to communicate with each other, to the organization of joint activities.

Based on this approach, the task of stimulating labor activity is to provide a person with the opportunity to satisfy the needs that were originally laid down in him. It is advisable to place accents in labor motivation with a focus on the internal structure of the personality.

The sociological approach to the definition of motivation is expressed in the approach of A.I. Kravchenko. Motivation, in his opinion, is «the process of encouraging oneself and others to act in order to achieve the goals of the organization» or personal goals[86]

This approach in the study of motivation is based on "understanding" sociology, the theory of social action. M. Weber, R. Merton, T. Parsons are rightfully called the representatives of this sociological approach. M. Weber[87]believes that a person is motivated by certain goals and values, but, being a social being, he is oriented by expected behavior according to certain rules. According to the concept of T. Parsons[88], society sets personality social patterns that determine personal motivation. R. Merton[89] highlighted the main parameters of social motivation: these are goals and values ​​and ethical and technical standards governing social actions.

I.M. Kulintsev believes that human behavior is always determined by his motivations and therefore is the subject of social management. The content of the motive includes a conscious choice of a goal and means of achieving it, takes into account the external environment and conditions of implementation, determines the lines and program of behavior, and evaluates the possible consequences.[90] According to this approach, the stimulation of labor is already a process that is realized not only by those who implement it, but also by those to whom it is directly directed. 

The other approach is managerial. It is represented by various definitions and currently does not have one generally accepted one. For example, G.G. Zaitsev will define motivation as «an incentive to active activity of individuals, collectives, groups, associated with the desire to satisfy certain needs.»[91] The managerial definition of motivation combined psychological and sociological approaches from the point of view of managing a person in an organization. The managerial definition of motivation focuses primarily on employee motivation. «Motivation is a combination of internal and external driving forces that induce a person to act, set the boundaries and forms of activity and give this activity an orientation focused on achieving certain goals.»[92]. The well-known American manager Lee Iacocca once remarked: «Management is nothing more than setting other people up for work.» The management process will achieve the greatest efficiency only through solving the problem of labor motivation.

From the point of view of B.Yu. Serbinovsky and S.M. Samygin: «Motivation is the motivation of people to take action.»[93] In this case, stimulation is no longer just a motivation of a person to activity, but also sets the meaning of this activity, thereby bringing the expected result.

Considering the well-established approaches, it should be noted that they do not exist in their pure form. It seems natural that the sciences strive for integration, which predetermines a new approach aimed at describing the motivation and stimulation of a person specifically in work, an approach that combines the achievements of sociology, economics, psychology, management and a number of other sciences - this is the approach of sociology of management. This is also indicated by A.I. Kravchenko in a number of his works and monographs[94].

Summarizing the above, motivation can be defined as a combination of internal and external forces that induce a person to effective and proactive activities in order to satisfy his needs, set guidelines for this activity and give it a focus on achieving certain goals.

In the activities of people there are always active driving forces that determine their behavior. On the one hand, an urge coming from outside, on the other, self-urge. The factor[95], that influences the impulses coming from outside is the stimulus. «The stimulus – is an external incentive for some kind of activity that does not depend on the employee»[96]. Organizations that have achieved impressive results in encouraging their employees to work efficiently and efficiently prove that employee incentives are a prerequisite for the success of the entire company.

According to A.I. Prigogine, «the approach to the problem of labor incentives consists in identifying and comparing, on the one hand, a system of incentives, and on the other, a system of motives and needs to satisfy which these incentives are directed. And to the extent that these counter «streams» are consistent, incentives will be effective. The task of management consists in such impact of stimuli on needs, which would cause appropriate labor behavior for the organization»[97]. According to A.P. Egorshin, stimulus is, first of all, «the cause of human behavior»[98]and the stimulation to work is «the cause of human behavior in the labor process»[99]S.S. Frolov distinguishes stimulus from motive and notes that stimulus is «an external reason that prompts people to take action»[100].

A similar point of view is shared by N.A. Volgin and O. N. Volgina, who believe that «stimulus is an external incentive to some kind of activity that does not depend on the employee»[101]. V.A. Spivak defines a stimulus as «an event or good that motivates a person or a group of people to perform some action or change their behavior»[102]In turn, stimulation can be defined as «a method of influencing the work behavior of an employee, mediated through his motivation»[103]. In various incentive models, two main methods are used - positive stimulation (reward) and negative (punishment). The first includes any expression of gratitude, cash bonuses, bonuses, promotions. Negative incentives include reprimand, deduction from wages, loss of bonuses, demotion. 

There are many studies in the field of stimulation and motivation (V.A.Yadov, A.G. Zdravomyslov, N.F. Naumova, Yu.P. Kokin, E.D. Katulsky, I.F. Belyaeva and others). Some of them are devoted to the classification of needs, others - to the processes of motivation and incentives.

In the second half of the 90s XX century studies of the problem of incentives and its impact on labor productivity were carried out in the following areas[104]:

  • issues of stimulation for enterprises and organizations of various forms of ownership;
  • problems of remuneration and its stimulating role in the transition to market relations;
  • issues of labor productivity, rationing of working hours.

Much attention was paid by researchers to the issues of remuneration in transitional market conditions. L.V. Torgova[105], after analyzing the issues of monetary incentives, proposed a classification of monetary incentives, which makes it possible to comprehensively consider the essence of monetary incentives and determine the priority of incentives to work in relation to various forms of ownership.

Monetary incentives can be classified according to the following criteria:

• by the time of action:

- continuous;

- discrete.

• by scope:

- nationwide;

- collective;

- personal.

• by functional purpose:

- prestigious;

- encouraging.

• by area of application:

- universal;

- specific.

In the process of functioning of labor motivation, there is a transition from actualized needs, realized through labor activity, to labor behavior. This transition is possible by stimulating labor activity.

In the incentive system, it is especially important to achieve a competent balance between reward, reward and punishment. The negative reaction of the management reduces the employee's activity and the level of his self-confidence. Positive work assessments increase self-esteem and stimulate labor activity. Encouragement allows you to instill confidence in yourself, in your abilities.

Analyzing incentives, A.P. Egorshin highlights the following [106]

  • (1) coercion, the author names as the most common methods of coercion - administrative, used in modern organizations, which include: remark, transfer to another position, transfer of vacation, reprimand, dismissal from work;
  • (2) material incentives, including wages and tariff rates, remuneration for results, bonuses from income or profits, compensation, travel packages, loans for the purchase of a car or furniture, loans for housing construction, etc.;
  • (3) moral encouragement (incentives aimed at satisfying the spiritual and moral needs of a person): announcement of gratitude, presentation of certificates of honor, honor boards, awarding of honorary titles, degrees, diplomas, publications in the press, presentation of government awards, etc .;
  • (4) self-affirmation - the internal driving forces of a person, prompting him to achieve his goals without direct external encouragement: writing a dissertation, publishing a book, author's invention, building a city (bridge), shooting a film, obtaining a second higher education, etc. Self-affirmation is the strongest incentive known.

There are three main methods of incentives: economic (elements of economic influence), administrative(organizational and regulatory impact) and socio-psychological (use of the social mechanism of management)[107]. These methods can be both positive and negative.

  So, the main task of incentives is to become a driving force of activity, and for this the incentive must be unambiguously perceived and understood by the employee, which is not always achieved. So, N.L. Zakharov, considering the employee's assessment of the incentives affecting him, gives the following classification of incentives[108]:

• motivating stimulus - the stimulus gives the expected effect. In this case, as a result of the action of the incentive, the motivation of the employee (employees) increases, which leads to the planned growth of labor productivity, which remains for a certain time. However, in essence, this is an ideal model, since the employee's real behavior differs from the expected (planned) one. This is because the employee needs to evaluate the incentive, and if it is adequate to the employee's motivation, the manager can hope for the expected productive behavior of the employee.

• non-motivating stimulus - the stimulus has a short-term impact or has no effect at all. This happens in the following cases: (1) incentive is not the key to motivating the employee, that is, the employee cannot evaluate (fully understand) the incentive; (2) the incentive is insignificant (for example, negligible monetary reward); (3) incentive is a means of manipulation, not motivation. Motivational stimulus orients a person to achieve goals in which he is interested, thereby encouraging his productive activity. It is necessary to distinguish between motivation and manipulation: motivation is the incentive of an employee to self-realization in professional activity, and manipulation in certain cases acts as coercion and violence or disorientation (deception). «Violence is not generally compulsion, not generally damage to life and property, but such damage and such compulsion, which are carried out against the will of one or those against whom they are directed»[109]. Manipulative stimulus forces a person to act in accordance with the requirements of the stimulating.

• demotivating stimulus - the stimulus provides a short-term positive effect, and then the employee's actions become protest.

There is also a classification of stimuli, which differentiates them into stimuli given by the motivating subject and stimuli perceived by the motivated subject[110].

From the point of view of the motivating subject, stimulus can be:

  • purposeful or non-purposeful, that is, a motivating subject can plan the influence of a stimulus on a motivated one or get a stimulating effect as a result of random actions;
  • effective and ineffective (ie, not giving the expected result);
  • direct and indirect (direct incentives imply a direct influence of the motivating subject on the motivated one; there are two main ways of direct incentives: reward and punishment; indirect incentives involve the creation of working conditions).

From the point of view of a motivated subject, stimulus can be as follows:

  • conscious or unconscious, that is, the motivated subject may not understand that he is being stimulated to some kind of action;
  • internal and external (internal incentives to work can be associated with the physical and psychological state of the employee, while external ones act either as a result of the activity of the motivating subject, or as the influence of the objective external environment).

Logically, other classes of stimulus can be distinguished:

By the degree of interest in the action of the stimulus:

1. personally significant (such stimulus that are of interest to the employee himself, according to his life goals);

2. suggestible (such stimulus that are of interest to the organization, according to the goals of the organization).

By the degree of time of stimulus exposure:

1.Long-term exposure (for example, the possibility of obtaining housing after a certain period of work in the organization);

2. short-term impact (stimulus to perform one-time jobs / tasks).

The correct ratio of long-term and short-term incentives will allow achieving the effect of high-quality performance of tasks by employees and an increase in staff loyalty.

The incentive is usually always associated with a specific situation. Research shows that the relationship between the activity of an employee and the results of his work can be described as a curve. First, as a result of increased activity, the results increase, and then the results remain at a certain achieved level. This stage E.A. Utkin [111] calls the "optimal range of activity" in which the best results are achieved. After achieving the highest result, activity begins to decline, and the results of work begin to deteriorate. Therefore, a manager must be able to achieve not the maximum activity of employees, but its optimal level.

The motive is the reason, the conscious need to do something. Maintaining motivation at the optimal level is a difficult process, since motives have the peculiarity of transforming under the influence of the characteristics of the personnel, the goals and time set. In this regard, labor incentives  plays the main role in maintaining staff motivation.

Labor incentives  is aimed at satisfying the needs of staff, that is, it is an offer to the employee what he needs. This process should be seen not only as a short-term impact on the employee in order to affect his motives, but also as a long-term impact. Short-term motives are associated with the immediate future, a short segment of the activity and its purpose; long-term - with a long-term perspective. The effectiveness of the stimulation increases with an increase in the level of stimulation from short to long.

Labor incentives  as a personnel management tool performs the following functions[112]:

  • economic function is expressed primarily in the fact that labor incentives  contributes to an increase in production efficiency, which is expressed in an increase in labor productivity and product quality;
  • moral function is determined by the fact that incentives to work form a life position, a moral climate in the organization and in society as a whole. At the same time, it is important to provide a correct and reasonable incentive system, taking into account traditions and historical experience;
  • social function is provided by the formation of the social structure of society through different levels of income, which largely depends on the impact of incentives on different people. In addition, the formation of needs, and as a result, the development of the individual is also predetermined by the organization and stimulation of labor in society.

A. Ya. Kibanov believes that «stimulation as a way of managing the work behavior of an employee consists in a purposeful impact on the behavior of personnel by influencing the conditions of his life, using the motives driving his activities ...». «Stimulation, he emphasizes, is a set of requirements and the corresponding system of rewards and punishments. Incentives presuppose that the management bodies have a set of benefits that can satisfy the needs of the employee that are significant today and now and use them as a reward for the successful implementation of labor functions»[113]. Based on this definition, incentives must be carried out not just to induce a person to work, but «to encourage him to do better (more) what is conditioned by labor relations»[114].

Labor incentives  is «... an element of the labor situation that affects human behavior in the world of work, the material shell of staff motivation»[115]. Motivation for work is laid down and formed in a person even before the start of his professional activity, «in the process of socialization of the individual by assimilating the values and norms of labor morality and ethics, as well as through personal participation in labor activities within the family and school. At this time, the foundations of the attitude to work are laid..., the working qualities of the individual are developing»[116]. In the process of socialization, a person «acquires the qualities that he needs for life in society, masters social activities, social communication and behavior»[117].

Stimulation is an impact on a person to induce him to certain actions by activating certain, previously formed motives in him. An interesting question is the ratio of «internal» and «external» motives. A motive is called «internal» if it comes directly from a person who needs to complete a certain task. An example of this type of motivation can be the pursuit of knowledge, the completion of difficult work, etc. «External» motives of labor are wages, orders, etc., associated with the solution of the task, motives coming from the outside. 

Another important factor, in addition to the motive, influencing the social action of the individual, is the expectation[118]. The way of choosing a goal or ideal is connected precisely with the expectation of the actions of other people.

The main task of any modern enterprise is to find effective ways of labor management that will contribute to the development of human resources. The most important aspect that affects the efficiency of personnel is the stimulation of labor, a certain model of which exists in every enterprise or firm. It represents the interrelated principles and factors that induce employees to work highly productive, thereby ensuring the productive operation of the entire system.

It is known that motivation has a significant and decisive influence on the performance of a person's work.

The simplest model of the incentive process includes three elements:

1. Conscious relationship by a person of his needs and expectations (income level, desire for respect, etc.) with the environment.

2. The very behavior of the individual. In the process of striving to satisfy his needs, a person chooses a certain line of behavior. There is a process of moving the individual towards the goal.

3. Satisfaction of needs.

Research has shown that people only work to their fullest when they are confident that their efforts will be properly rewarded. The manager's task is to provide employees with the opportunity to meet the full range of their needs in exchange for their work and skills. In this situation, the effectiveness of the management style plays an important role. Efficiency consists of many components: these are the potential capabilities of the organization, the general competitive situation, the abilities of the leader himself[119].

Stimulating an employee as a process can be represented as a series of sequential stages[120].

The first stage is stimulation to activity (usually external).

The second stage is the person's assessment of the stimulus and correlating it with his expectations and needs.

The third stage is the actualization of needs under the influence of a stimulus and the correlation of the actualized need with the conditions of the social environment, which is manifested in the assessment of the possibility of satisfying or not satisfying the need. At this stage, social regulators and organizational conditions are of great importance, which influence personal choice. The nature of the assessment is influenced by the way of assessment (and more broadly - the style of thinking of the individual, for example, the rational assessment of reality).

The fourth stage - a person, focusing on his style of thinking, searches for ways to realize the need, finds the goals (direction) of action, in what ways and what kind of need can be provided. It determines what needs to be obtained in order to satisfy the need.

The fifth stage is the choice of actions in accordance with your style of thinking.

The sixth stage is an action in order to obtain the desired result.

Stimulus as an instrument of influence is directly focused on the need, its satisfaction, while the motive is a kind of connecting link between the need and the stimulus. For this connection to appear, the incentive must be understood and accepted by the employee.
In the process of turning a stimulus into a behavior-determining motive, the stimulus can be accepted or rejected by the subject. If the stimulus is accepted, it is quickly updated. This is possible if there is an appropriate attitude, which may be past experience or a person's predisposition to certain actions in specific situations. The attitude characterizes the stereotyped perception of the stimulus from the standpoint of the possibility of satisfying the need. It's a kind of automatism of actions[121].
Another, more prolonged process of stimulation takes place when an employee finds himself in a new situation for which he does not have an appropriate attitude. In this case, the rational-evaluative process plays a special role, including the evaluation of the information in the stimulus and the evaluation of the ability to satisfy the actual need.
The actualized motive represents the impetus, the very reason for the behavior and completes the stimulation process.
Taking into account the head of the organization of the mechanism of motivation helps to choose the most competent forms and methods of incentives. The described mechanism of motivation shows only the general elements of the motivational process and does not give definite ideas about the formation or strength of motivational action and its influence on a person's labor behavior[122].

However, knowledge of the logic of the incentive process does not provide global advantages in managing this phenomenon due to the lack of obvious motives. One can only guess which motives are leading, but it is difficult to define them unambiguously. The motivational process is constantly transforming and depends on those needs that are leading for it at the moment. In this regard, its various changes and transformations are likely. It is also necessary to consider the fact that motivational structures are different for different people. Hence follows the differentiated degree of influence of some stimuli and others.

Summarizing the considered problems, it should be noted that the process of implementing managerial influences on personnel is based on the use of various driving forces that induce proactive and purposeful activities, which are, first of all, motives and incentives. The complex nature of the emergence and nature of the influence of various incentives and motives predetermines a different degree of effectiveness of management influences, that is, different results of incentives, based not only on the specifics of the subject (personnel management system) involved in the incentive process, but also on the object of management (employee) itself. 

In the activities of people there are always active driving forces that determine their behavior. On the one hand, it is an urge coming from the outside, and on the other hand, self-urge. The factor influencing the impulses coming from the outside is the stimulus.

In various incentive models, two main methods are used - positive stimulation (reward) and negative (punishment).

The incentives themselves are diverse both in action and in result.

Summing up, we can say that labor incentives is «an influence on the motivational structure of an employee’s personality through directed managerial influence, in order to obtain a certain result, which in modern conditions becomes the employee’s ability to accumulate and effectively use the existing labor potential in accordance with the goals and values of the organization»[123]

The incentive system is «a set of measures of managerial influence on personnel, aimed at agreeing and harmonizing the goals and directions of development of the personnel management system with the directions of development of the organization»[124].

The purpose of the labor incentive system is to harmonize the methods and forms of labor incentives with the main goals and directions of development of the personnel management system and the organization as a whole.

 

1.3. Parameters and characteristics of a high-quality personnel incentive system

In the process of labor incentives, the organization and the employee interact. The consumer of the incentive system is, on the one hand, the organization itself that develops this system, focusing on its tasks and potential opportunities, and on the other hand, an employee who is a directly interested person, since he comes to the company in pursuit of his goals. First of all, the results of the activity of the entire organization depend on what this interaction will be, how it will be formed and built.

In order to make incentive systems of high quality and effective, it is necessary to ensure control over their application in the process of their construction. Before talking about high-quality incentive systems and their design, it is necessary to analyze the very concept of "quality". This concept itself contains many aspects and elements.

Quality is one of the most important philosophical categories, which was considered in the works of Aristotle, B. Spinoza, K. Marx[125]. Despite the fact that research in the field of quality has been going on for a long time, there is still no single approach to defining the concept of quality.

All the variety of definitions of the category «quality» can be combined into the following groups[126]:

  • quality as an absolute assessment (in this common meaning, quality is synonymous with excellence);
  • quality as a property of an object (in this meaning, quality is derived from any measurable quantitative parameter of an object or phenomenon);
  • quality as conformity to value (as fitness for use);
  • quality as a correspondence to cost (quality as a ratio of utility and cost);
  • quality as compliance with standards.

The systemic concept of quality is reflected in the definition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. «Quality is an essential certainty of an object or process, acting in its properties and characterizing the fact that a given object or process appears in given conditions, in connection and interaction with other given objects and processes».[127]

G.G. Azgaldov introduced another term into everyday life: «quality is a complex property, which is a combination of all those and only those properties that characterize the results obtained when consuming an object (both desirable, positive, and undesirable, negative)»[128]

In the S.I. Ozhegov's Dictionary of the Russian language S.I. Ozhegov's quality is interpreted as "the presence of essential signs, properties and features that distinguish one object or phenomenon from others"[129].

To assess and determine the quality of incentive systems, the most applicable is the definition of this concept by G.G. Azgaldova, assessing the quality from the standpoint of the results obtained in the process of using the object. From the point of view of incentives, such results can be: an increase in productivity when introducing incentive policies, an improvement in the moral and psychological climate, an increase in organizational loyalty, a decrease in staff turnover, an increase in the creative component of labor, etc.

Based on the multiplicity of approaches in defining «quality», the requirements for the organization of a high-quality incentive system can be represented as a series of requirements[130]:

  • complexity[131] of the system. It implies the unity of economic, administrative and socio-psychological incentives, the ratio of which depends on approaches to personnel management, experience and traditions of the enterprise. Complexity also presupposes the presence of disincentives;
  • differentiation of the system. Means an individual approach to stimulating different layers and groups of workers;
  • flexibility and efficiency of the system. Constant revision of incentives, depending on the changes taking place in society and the team.

In order to maximize the effect of the incentive system, certain principles must be followed[132]:

  • availability. Every incentive must be available to all employees. The conditions for incentives must be clear;
  • perceptibility. Different incentives affect different people in different ways, this principle must be taken into account when determining the lower threshold of the incentive;
  • gradualness. Economic incentives are subject to constant adjustment, and this must be taken into account in practice. Once highly increased remuneration, which is not subsequently confirmed, will negatively affect the employee's motivation due to the formation of an expectation of increased remuneration and the emergence of a new lower incentive threshold that would be acceptable to the employee. At the same time, a decrease in the level of material incentives is not allowed;
  • • minimization of the gap between the results of work and its remuneration. The simultaneous action of the stimulus has been noticed for a long time. Experiments have shown that adherence to this principle can even reduce the level of remuneration, since many employees prefer «less is better, but right away». The increase in reward, its direct connection with the real result is a strong motivator. An increase in the level of remuneration in relation to the previous one brings the employee both material and moral satisfaction;
  • a combination of monetary, administrative and socio-psychological types of incentives. By their very nature, all of these species are equally powerful and effective. It all depends on the place, time and subject of the influence of these incentives: the scope of the organization, the financial situation and the characteristics of the activity of a particular employee. Taking into account this circumstance, it is necessary to correctly combine these types of incentives, taking into account their purposeful action on an individual employee. Underestimation or overestimation of any type of incentive leads to a decrease in the efficiency and quality of personnel, which in turn is dangerous for the entire organization;
  • a combination of incentives and disincentives. Here we are talking about dismissal, reprimand. It is a known fact that negative motivation acts as a kind of mobilizing factor of activity.

One of the main indicators of the quality of the incentive system is the assessment of the effectiveness of labor incentives. When considering the issue of assessment, we will single out general and specific aspects of this problem. Effectiveness is defined as «the ability to have an effect, to have an effect». The concept of «labor efficiency» is defined as the most important economic indicator that characterizes the productivity of the labor activity of people; expressed in achieving the greatest effect with minimal labor costs. 

With regard to assessing the effectiveness of labor incentives, one can restrict ourselves to an estimate of costs equal to the costs of the enterprise (firm) for remuneration of labor. In this case, the problem of labor efficiency can be transferred to the “plane” of enterprise efficiency, since the implementation of labor incentives is associated with costs, and any stimulating effects should lead to an increase in labor productivity and an increase in production efficiency. All this should ultimately lead to an increase in the organization's revenues to such a level that would allow not only to cover the costs of using a certain incentive system, but also to make a profit in excess of this. Thus, an important characteristic of a quality incentive system is its self-sufficiency.

As a research problem, the process of developing a labor incentive system, which is subject to certain rules, is of particular interest. Among the rules for developing an incentive system, it is necessary to highlight those that maximally affect the motivation of employees[133].

Building an incentive system on a scientific basis.

The development of a high-quality incentive system cannot fail to take into account the achievements of scientific theories in the field of labor motivation. To date, two main directions of motivational theory have already developed and are recognized: procedural and substantive. Each of them, based on the advanced achievements of various branches of science, contributed to the theory and practice of motivation and incentives.

Along with the emergence of scientific management, a social need arose for theories aimed at developing science-based personnel management mechanisms, or incentive mechanisms. The empirical experience of F. Taylor, G. Ford, Frank and Lilia Gilbrets, and then E. Mayo, accumulated in the first decades of the twentieth century, discovered a number of aspects of staff incentives and served as a prerequisite for the formation of a procedural approach in the theory of motivation. F. Taylor, for example, studied labor operations of workers. The Gilbrets, in turn, invented the device and gave it the name «microchronometer», which they used in conjunction with a movie camera in order to determine exactly what movements are performed during specific operations and how long each one takes. Henry Ford created an optimal system for organizing labor operations of workers - a conveyor belt. The achievements of the named scientists caused the emergence of a social order for applied theories of motivation and labor incentives and became a prerequisite for the creation of a procedural approach in the theory of motivation and incentives.

The intellectual impetus for this approach was given by Kurt Levin's «field theory»[134] (30s of the twentieth century)describing the factors that determine human behavior. According to this theory, the course of actions is completely determined by the totality of conditions of the field existing at a particular moment. The concept of a field covers the causes (factors) of both external (environment) and internal (subject) situations. K. Levin proposes, when analyzing the behavior of an individual, to proceed from an integral situation, which must be reconstructed as it appears to the subject. This means that the explanation of the behavior and the situation must be psychological. Another characteristic of Levin's theory is as follows: simple connections in the meaning of the «stimulus-response» association are not enough to explain behavior; it must be taken into account that behavior is influenced by what acts here and now, within the existing field. To explain behavior, K. Levin developed models that partially complement each other: personality and environment. Also of great importance for understanding motivation was the idea of ​​dividing human behavior into volitional and field. 

The procedural approach became quite productive and was further developed in the theory of expectations by V. Vroom (1960s)[135]. According to this theory, a person expects certain behavior from others, depending on his position in the team. Not only one need is a necessary condition for stimulating a person to achieve a set goal, but also the type of behavior chosen by him.

Procedural expectation theories illustrate that employee behavior is determined by behavior:

1. a leader who stimulates the employee's work;

2. an employee who expects to receive a reward;

3. an employee and a manager who assume that improving the quality of work will lead to a certain reward;

4. an employee who compares the amount of remuneration received with the amount that will allow him to meet the needs.

According to the theory of expectations in relation to the problem of labor incentives, the manager should provide such rewards that can satisfy the urgent needs of the employee. 

In the theory of justice by R. Adams (1965)[136] the effectiveness of an incentive is assessed by an employee not by a group of factors, but by taking into account the assessment of remuneration given to other employees working in a similar work situation.

An employee evaluates his or her remuneration against the remuneration of other employees, taking into account the working conditions. For example, one runs on newer hardware and the other does not. In this case, one will have one product quality, and the other will have another. Thus, a person's actions are focused on his desire for equality in relations with other people in his environment.

The theory of expectations and the theory of justice was synthesized by the concept of L. Porter and E. Lawler (second half of the twentieth century)[137] in which the relationship between the reward and the results obtained was introduced. 

L. Porter and E. Lawler introduced variables that affect the amount of remuneration: the applied efforts, the qualities of a person's personality and his awareness of his role in the labor process. Expectation theory and equity theory are that the employee estimates his remuneration in accordance with the effort expended and expects that the remuneration will be equivalent to the effort expended.

The need to develop incentive mechanisms that would affect a person's inner urge to action led to the formation of a meaningful approach in the theory of motivation and the development of concepts by D. McClelland, F. Herzberg, A. Maslow and others. These concepts from different angles, but quite fully characterize human needs, the nature of functioning and the mechanism of maturation of a person's inner motivation, its structure. 

The formation of a meaningful approach was greatly influenced by the practical experiments of E. Mayo (1927-1932)[138], in particular the Hawthorne experiments in Chicago. The experiments were carried out in order to understand how the working conditions influence the labor productivity (in particular, the experiment was carried out with the level of illumination). As a result, the following conclusions were made: the level of illumination does not affect labor productivity as much as constant control over workers.

An essential feature of Mayo's work is his negative attitude towards social conflict. He believed that industrial unrest was due to personal problems, both physiological and mental. So, for example, he believed that the source of industrial unrest is not so much the desire of workers to comply with their legitimate economic or group interests, as their pessimistic inner attitude. Accordingly, the refusal of the individual to obey one or another of the requirements of the leader was viewed by Mayo not as one of the inevitable moments in the work of production, but as a manifestation of his, the individual, mental instability or unmet needs. In evaluating the results of experiments carried out in the experimental assembly area, Mayo deliberately neglected the influence of material incentives on the behavior of pickers and focused on group cohesion and unobtrusive leadership.

On the basis of the Hawthorne experiments, E. Mayo and his colleagues put forward the concept of «human relations». It is based on the following ideas;

• a person is a social being,

• leaders of organizations should focus on meeting the needs of people,

• the needs of employees include not only material, but also social interests and aspirations.

Just as the ideas of scientific management became associated with the name and works of F.W. Taylor, the study of the relationship between members of the production team and the social aspects of the individual, which became the threshold of a new era in management theory, began to be associated with the figure of Elton Mayo.

However, not everyone remembers that the famous English socialist Robert Owen (1771-1858) became a pioneer in the study of the influence of socio-psychological factors on the increase in labor productivity. As director of a number of textile factories in New Lenark, Scotland, Owen from 1800 to 1828. conducted an experiment aimed at humanizing the relationship between entrepreneurs and employees. R. Owen improved working and living conditions, organized trade in shops for workers at affordable prices, opened schools, etc. Owen was also the first to recognize the importance of motivating workers. One day he came to a factory with three types of ribbons: green, yellow and red. He tied red ribbons to the machines of well-performing workers, green ribbons to the machines of workers with average output, and yellow ribbons to the machines of workers who did not meet the established norms. The workers understood this immediately and after two months they all had red ribbons. So, without increasing wages, Owen achieved an increase in labor productivity. Owen reflected his experience in the book «A New Look at Society, or Experience on the Principles of Human Character Education» (1813). 

Such practical experience became the starting point in the creation of theories of the needs of the individual and the beginning of meaningful theories of motivation, the creators of which believed that a person would not work productively if, as a result of his professional activity, he could not satisfy his needs, and that the construction of incentive systems should be based precisely on this postulate.

The first of the considered theories is the hierarchy of needs of A. Maslow (1934-1954)[139]. Its essence boils down to the study of human needs. According to Maslow, human behavior is based on needs, which can be divided into several groups:

1. physiological needs;

2. the need for security and confidence in the future;

3. social needs;

4. the need for respect, recognition;

5. the need for self-actualization and self-expression.

The first two groups of needs are primary, and the remaining three are secondary.

According to A. Maslow's theory, needs can be arranged in a strict hierarchical sequence, in the form of a kind of pyramid, the base of which is primary needs, and the top is secondary. The meaning of such a stepwise construction is that the needs of lower levels are prioritized for a person and this lays an imprint on his motivation. In other words, the most decisive factor in human behavior is the satisfaction of needs at first low levels. Further, as these needs are satisfied, the needs of higher levels become a stimulating factor in labor activity.

The highest need - the need for self-expression and personal growth of a person - can never be fully satisfied, and therefore the process of stimulating a person through his needs is endless.

In this case, the task of incentives should be defined as the management of unmet personnel needs. It is the duty of every manager to find out in a timely manner what active needs drive employees, and to contribute to their implementation in order to improve the quality of employees' work.

David McClelland's Theory of Motivation (1961)[140]In the process of development of economic relations, an important role in the theory of motivation began to be assigned to the needs of high levels. The representative of this theory is David McClelland. According to his position, the structure of the highest level needs is reduced to the following elements: the desire for success, the desire for power, the desire for recognition. In this case, success is seen not as praise or recognition of colleagues, but as personal achievements in the course of active work, as a willingness to make difficult decisions and take personal responsibility for them. Recognition is seen as the ability to be a leader, to have your own opinion, and power is seen as the ability of a person to work productively at various levels of management in an organization.

Labor stimulation in this case comes down to managing these needs by preparing employees for moving up the career ladder to new positions through certification, referral to advanced training courses, etc.

The theory of motivation by Frederick Herzberg (1959) appeared in connection with the growing need to determine the influence of material and moral factors on a person's motivation for activity. Frederick Herzberg created a two-factor model that reflects job satisfaction.

The first group of factors (hygienic factors) is associated with the environment in which the work is carried out and with the working conditions. Hygiene factors correspond to physiological needs. The second group of incentive factors is associated with the essence and content of the work itself. Job satisfaction is determined by factors such as the ability to move up the career ladder, the ability to achieve recognition, etc.

According to this theory, productivity and quality of work can be achieved by organizing work in such a way that the employee is aware of the importance and complexity of the work he is doing, responsibility, so that there is no monotony of the operations performed. 

Thus, meaningful theories of motivation are based on the study of needs and the discovery of factors that determine the behavior of people, that is, they affect a person's inner urge to action. A feature of the procedural approach is that it describes the processes of social actions of a person from an external point of view, i.e. focused on the development of mechanisms of external influence.

The construction of an incentive system should take into account and competently coordinate the influence of the incentive on the motive, since only if the incentive and motive coincide, the effectiveness of the activities of both the organization and the personnel will be maximum. 

In practice, a combination of various forms of incentives is widely used, most often resorting to a combination of monetary and non-monetary forms of incentives, which significantly enhances their effect. This combination is typical for the professional promotion system. Non-cash forms of remuneration are an additional form of remuneration. Although their share in the structure of remuneration is relatively small, the stimulating effect and impact on the economic behavior of workers is very significant.

The experience of using non-monetary forms of remuneration in Russia and in Western countries allows us to draw the following conclusion: as a rule, the role and significance of non-monetary forms of remuneration increases with the growth of the level of monetary income and the growth of the creative component of labor activity.

Other rules for developing a high-quality labor incentive system include the following[141]

  • real consideration of the interests of employees, which includes the objective characteristics of their activities. The labor incentive system will be effective to the extent that it corresponds to the real interests of its employees;
  • the system of labor incentives must be built on the foundation of mutual responsibility of the organization and each employee, with clear and consistent observance of their mutual obligations. It is fundamentally important that the obligations of employees to the organization and its obligations to them correspond to each other, would be balanced both from the professional and moral points of view;
  • the labor incentive system should ensure an appropriate lifestyle for employees, creating favorable conditions for the reproduction of their workforce and contributing to the fullest disclosure of the employee's personality potential;
  • the labor incentive system should provide effective social protection to employees.

Focusing on the variety of existing classifications of incentives that characterize the focus and strength of managerial influence on the employee, it becomes possible to formulate the following indicators of the quality of incentive systems:

• the importance of organizational incentives (the presence in the incentive system of a complex of organizational incentives endowed with a value-significant coloring for the majority of employees who are able to meet urgent needs, which provides a stimulating nature for managerial influences);

• the optimal ratio of direct organizational incentives (wages, bonuses, etc.) and indirect impact (working conditions);

• the optimal ratio of organizational incentives of long and short-term impact (orient the activities of employees towards the implementation of short-term and long-term goals and prospects);

• unambiguous perception of organizational incentives (incentives of the incentive system should not only be accepted by the majority of employees, but also correctly understood and evaluated by them);

• purposefulness of the influence of organizational incentives (not spontaneously arising, but implemented in accordance with the main goals and directions of development of the personnel management system).

Thus, the construction and development of such incentive systems must meet the following requirements: the complexity of the system, the differentiation of the system, as well as the flexibility and efficiency of the system, which consists in the constant revision of incentives depending on the changes taking place in society and the work collective.

At the same time, the construction and development of incentive systems should take into account the existing experience, features and specifics of the organization's activities and be designed on a scientific basis.

Summarizing the considered problems of the first chapter, it should therefore be determined that

1. Stimulus - is an external incentive to some kind of activity, independent of the employee.

2. Motivation - is a combination of internal and external driving forces that induce a person to effective and proactive activities in order to satisfy his needs, set the boundaries and forms of activity and give this activity an orientation focused on achieving certain goals.

3. Focusing on the variety of existing classifications of incentives that characterize the direction and strength of managerial influence on the employee, it becomes possible to formulate the following indicators of the quality of incentive systems:

• the importance of organizational incentives (the presence in the incentive system of a complex of organizational incentives endowed with a value-significant coloring for the majority of employees who are able to meet urgent needs, which provides a stimulating nature for managerial influences);

• the optimal ratio of direct organizational incentives (wages, bonuses, etc.) and indirect impact (working conditions);

• the optimal ratio of organizational incentives of long-term and short-term impact (they carry out the orientation of employees' activities towards the implementation of short-term and long-term goals and prospects);

• unambiguous perception of organizational incentives (incentives of the incentive system should not only be accepted by the majority of employees, but also correctly understood and evaluated by them);

• purposefulness of the influence of organizational incentives (not spontaneously arising, but implemented in accordance with the main goals and directions of development of the personnel management system).

Currently, the economic nature of labor remuneration has fundamentally changed. Labor remuneration is understood as «the totality of material and other benefits received by the employee as a result of his participation in the labor process».[142] Labor remuneration (and, above all, wages) has always been and remains for most members of society the basis of their well-being.

There are various systems of labor incentives. The leadership of modern organizations independently sets the forms, systems and amounts of labor remuneration. At the same time, it is possible to use the ratios laid down in the previously valid tariff rates as guidelines for differentiating earnings depending on the profession, qualifications, complexity and working conditions. The most important task is to establish the relationship between the wages of each employee with the quantitative and qualitative results of work.

A condition for high efficiency of labor remuneration is a systematic approach to the development and application of incentive systems, taking into account: 

• the complexity of the system (the unity of economic, administrative and socio-psychological incentives, the ratio of which depends on approaches to personnel management, experience and traditions of the enterprise);

• differentiation of the system (means an individual approach to stimulating different strata and groups of workers, based on their real interests and needs);

• flexibility and efficiency of the system (constant revision of incentives depending on changes in society and the team).

Knowledge of the logic of the incentive process does not provide decisive advantages in managing this phenomenon. An important factor here is the non-obviousness of the motives. It is very difficult to identify which motives are leading in the motivational process of a particular person and in specific conditions.

A very important factor is the constant transformation of the motivational process. Its character depends on what needs initiate it. The needs themselves are in a complex dynamic interaction, often contradict each other. The components of this interaction are capable of changing over time, changing the direction and nature of the action of motives. Hence, even with a deep study of the motivational structure of a person, the system of his action, completely unforeseen changes in human behavior and an unexpected reaction to stimulating influences are possible. Another important factor is the difference in the motivational structures of different people, different degrees of exposure to the same stimuli, different degrees of dependence of the action of some stimuli on others.

Thus, in order to develop a labor incentive system that meets quality indicators, first of all, it is necessary to study the typology of personnel in order to determine the nature of the impact of the complex of existing incentives that determines the effect of managerial influence (result). With the help of a systematic approach, it becomes possible to ensure a competent choice by the management of effective forms of incentives, the correct determination of the degree, nature and speed of the impact of incentives on employees, that is, to set the management impact of a targeted stimulating character in accordance with the goals and directions of development of the personnel management system and the organization as a whole.

 

 

CHAPTER 2

PERSONNEL INCENTIVES SYSTEM AS AN OBJECT OF MANAGEMENT SOCIOLOGY

 

2.1. The social essence of the incentive mechanism

In accordance with the definition of motivation as a set of internal and external driving forces that induce a person to effective and proactive activities in order to meet his needs, set the boundaries and forms of activity and give this activity a focus, focused on achieving certain goals, it can be assumed that labor activity contributes to the actualization and satisfaction of the needs of the individual, bringing the expected result, both for the employee and for the organization.

One of the important elements of purposeful behavior as an individual interaction with the social environment is a person's orientation towards a certain result. Social behavior is an activity that involves some personally significant results and rewards. This reward can be any “good” (knowledge, information, comfort, respect, fame, benevolent attitude, power, money, etc.). And also this is an activity that occurs under the influence of socio-economic factors.

A person, being a socially free individual, consciously enters into labor relations, chooses a type of activity and comes to an organization with certain requirements for it and expects something definite for his behavior. Most of the purposeful human behavior in the organization is the result of conscious decisions, in particular about the amount of effort (contribution) that makes sense to make in your work. This decision is made on the basis of calculation, comparing your contribution with the return of the organization and striving to get the expected result[143]. The results of this comparison can lead to both an increase in labor activity and a decrease in it.

In this sense, behavior directed towards a social result is always a social relation, direct or mediated social interaction, since the individual here deals not only with the social objects (goods) he needs, but also with social subjects - other people, groups, organizations, social institutions - "producing" and controlling these benefits[144]

This feature of the social interaction between the employee and the organization gives grounds to consider labor activity as a process of social exchange.

Both labor activity and social interaction have a number of common characteristics: this is the result of conscious decisions that result in goal-oriented rational activity, in the process of which the subjects of relations achieve measurable personally significant results and rewards, which actualizes and contributes to the satisfaction of many individual needs.

M.S. Kagan believes that the personality must «be determined not through psychology, and even more so not through physiology, but through its holistically considered activity»[145]. He also proposes to consider personality as a result of socialization of an individual, «in which the latter becomes a subject of activity and it is in this capacity that he joins social experience, disobjectifies it, assimilates and assimilates (to the extent, of course, of his individual capabilities and abilities)».[146] A.V.Tikhonov emphasizes that «human activity is initially social, it is inseparable from the problems that are social in their genesis and from cooperation with the people involved in their solution...»[147]

At this stage, it becomes necessary to consider the essence (structure) of labor relations (social interaction).

As noted earlier, a person's labor activity is social interaction, since labor behavior aimed at a social result is always a social relation, direct or mediated, since the individual deals not only with the social objects he needs, but also with social subjects - other people, groups, organizations. It is obvious that such social interaction consists of two elements[148]:

1. the relationship of the individual with the necessary objects, affecting the redistribution of the benefits of the organization;

2. the relationship of the individual with social subjects, affecting the issues of socio-psychological and status-role interactions.

It is logical to assume that human management in an organization should take into account a set of fundamental and situational factors that characterize these two elements and their features in the exchange process.

In theory, almost any set of goals or expectations of an individual can be included in exchange. Researchers have attempted to determine what is exchanged for what, what the organization gives for each type of individual contribution: money - for the time of work; social recognition and safety - for work and loyalty to the organization; the possibility of creative and free labor - for high productivity and quality, for creative efforts to achieve the goals of the organization, etc.[149] In studies of role behavior, it is argued that the acceptance of a certain social role depends on how comfortable the individual is with the «desired net balance» of «rewards» and «losses» calculated by him, which can include any personal values and feelings of loneliness. etc.[150] When using the exchange scheme to assess the «quality of life», it is proposed to consider it as the result of a «deal» between an individual and society about four main «resources» - money, time, relationships and skills[151].

In Western models of social exchange, the relationship between man and the social environment was based solely on the concept of "economic man", substantiated in the 18th century. A. Smith. So, G. Homans built the mechanism of social exchange on the assumption that it is the direct mutual usefulness of people, the exchange of rewards that is the source, the guarantor of social solidarity and orderliness of society. The mechanisms by which this exchange operates, according to Homans, are quite simple[152]. For example, if there was a situation in the past in which a person's behavior was rewarded, then the more the current situation resembles the past, the more likely the person will behave in the same or similar way. Or: the more often, during a given time period, one person's behavior rewards another's behavior, the more often that other will behave in the same way. Moreover, the more valuable to a person the behavior that is rewarded by another, the more often he will demonstrate rewarded behavior. 

The reasons and incentives that would induce the employee to work, that is, contribute to the emergence of purposeful labor behavior (according to G. Homans),[153] can be represented in the form of five points:

1. «Statement of success». The more often an activity is rewarded, the more likely it is to be done. Behavior that has positive consequences for the individual is very likely to repeat itself. And, therefore, it becomes possible to stimulate those performance results that are most important for the organization.

2. «Statement of incentive». Similar circumstances or similar situations will stimulate behavior that has been rewarded in similar situations in the past. This makes it possible to predict the necessary behavioral reactions to innovations and helps to expand the influence on the employee.

3. «Statement of value». The more valuable the results of an action are to an individual, the more likely it is that the action will be performed. Here we are talking about the need to organize the work process in such a way, in which the employee would not only receive monetary rewards, but would also feel the significance of their activities.

4. «Statement of deprivation – satiety». The more often a person receives a specific reward for an action, the less valuable the additional element of that reward is. Thus, some rewards become less effective, which means that incentives to work, even for the same positive action, should not be constant for a long time. True, this is less true for rewards where saturation is less likely to occur (eg, money).

5. «Statement of emotionality». It is about the conditions in which people react emotionally to various rewarding situations. This provision covers two types of reactions. People who are not getting what they expected are expected to become angry and aggressive, which is not conducive to quality of work. Moreover, such workers can turn against the organization of their colleagues by spreading negative information. People who receive more or as much as they expected will be happy and behave positively, thereby “telling” the organization that they value it and are ready to continue working in it.

The fundamental limitation of this scheme lies in the fact that it does not take into account practically any actually social mechanism for regulating behavior (role, institutional, normative, associated with power, etc.).

Another, normative interpretation of "exchange" can be found in the critical clarifications of A. Gouldener[154]:

1. Compliance with the norm is usually rewarded. (Gouldener's clarification: conformity is a function of rewarding it on the part of another - a person, a group, etc. - and the «price» of this conformity for the one who follows it).

2. The more the behavior corresponds to the norm (the expectations of others), the more it is rewarded by these others. (Clarification: the longer the conformal actions are performed, the less they are valued and rewarded. This can have two consequences: a) a person decreases his conformity and does not receive a reward, the exchange is disturbed; b) a person increases his conformity so that the reward does not decrease (conformity inflation).

3. Scarcity or level of remuneration does not affect the stability of the social system as long as participants accept existing norms. (Clarification: when participants in an interaction accept certain norms, adherence to them is considered mandatory and therefore less rewarded. Thus, having common norms increases the likelihood that conformity will be rewarded, but reduces the amount of reward (the paradox of conformity).

4. Acceptance of existing norms leads to the complementarity of rights and obligations, that is, one participant in social interaction does not expect more reward than the other can and wants to give. (Clarification: the equilibrium of a social system is not determined by complementarity, but by the degree of reciprocity of reward. The more one-way exchange becomes, the more unstable the relationship becomes. Reciprocity implies that not only the rights of one party are obligations of the other, but that each party has rights and obligations).

The above approaches to explaining the action of social exchange do not show that people in the process of their professional activities are able to be guided not only by their own interests, «but they can also be guided by other aspirations - altruism, a sense of justice, conformity to status, etc.»[155]. Thus, the emergence of another «motivation» that does not fall into the «exchange» scheme can be regarded as a manifestation of other mechanisms of social interaction. This is a motivation that is not based solely on the rational expectation of the individual.

Incentives that cannot be explained only by mutual benefits and rewards are realized through the following social mechanisms[156]:

Internal reward mechanism. Reward of this type does not come from the social environment: the individual, in a sense, «gives out to himself», the environment can neither directly give nor take away this reward. This type of reward can be attributed to the so-called psychological return that a person receives from the work process itself (a sense of the social necessity of his work, a sense of success, the ability to do what he has dreamed of for a long time, etc.) The process of internal reward can be represented as a chain «return - social reward - inner experience of reward». Obviously, this group includes any positive psychological state caused by any reward (for example, wages). Internal reward mechanism is a kind of internal motivation that lies in the work itself, in its meaning and value. Internal motives are associated with social significance, the satisfaction that work gives due to the fact that it contains the opportunity for self-development, creativity, the opportunity to be useful. This is the motivation that is contained in the sense of work, its purpose. This type of motive includes:

• self-affirmation;

• conviction in the importance of the chosen type of activity;

• need for communication;

• a dream to work in a certain specialty;

• a sense of pride and patriotism for their work;

• a sense of the need for the chosen profession.

External reward mechanism. The only difference from internal reward is that in the chain of «external» reward, the first two elements are considered sufficient. The organization can and should guarantee this type of remuneration to its employees. These are wages, social security, opportunities for professional growth, labor safety, etc. This is the type of reward that, to a certain extent, comes from outside, from the side of the organization and is external motivation, that is, it contains those motives that relate to the content of labor and its characteristics. It:

• wage;

• social benefits;

• possibility of career growth;

• the ability to buy prestigious items;

• obtaining the desired life status;

• satisfaction with occupational safety, etc.

«Internal» reward appears where it (and thus the exchange) cannot be guaranteed. An organization, for example, can provide an employee with equipment, information, interesting tasks, but it cannot believe that it rewards him with creative satisfaction, because it cannot guarantee it. In any (especially good) conditions, this satisfaction will not be received by an employee who is incapable and (or) not motivated by creativity itself. And even where creative satisfaction does take place, it is not organizationally guaranteed. A person will not receive spiritual satisfaction from his work if the work is not desired and loved for him.

Failure to guarantee exchange should be considered when designing incentive systems. This means that the more the employee is aware of the "guaranteed exchange", the more efficiently he will work. But even in this case, not everything is so simple. Indeed, the exchange as such can be guaranteed, but it is impossible to guarantee the employee that the exchange will be equivalent, that is, it will adequately reflect the individual contribution of each participant to the labor process and provide him with what he needs[157]. The equivalence probability reflects the mechanism of nonequivalent exchange. This mechanism, from the point of view of its significance for stimulating labor, is characterized by the impossibility of directly determining at a specific moment the degree of exchange equivalence. There are three reasons for this impossibility.

(1) it expresses the quality of human existence. Here we are talking about the fact that it is impossible to establish and rank in the same way for all participants in the exchange of values, and to establish a single hierarchy, since the social values of each person are individual and represent a different degree of significance for the individual. We are talking about the system of expectations of a person in relation to the benefits received from the organization, which is associated with the idea of the quality of life and the level of social relationships.

(2) an increase in the number of «collective»[158] types of work. The deepening of the social and technical division of labor contributed to the emergence of new social functions and such labor, in relation to which it is very difficult to determine what, in fact, is its immediate result (for example, the work of a doctor). That is why some organizations began to replace the assessment of the performance of an employee with an assessment of his behavior in the organization - discipline, diligence, loyalty, etc. Thus, determining the degree of equivalence of the exchange of labor results is complicated by the variety of emerging criteria for assessing not only the immediate result, but also the labor process itself ... This requires a clear systematization and coordination of the «criterion apparatus» of the employee and the organization.

(3) exchange equivalents are far from universal in time. What was valuable to the employee yesterday may not be of value today, since his motives and needs can be transformed under the influence of the external environment and personal attitudes. We can agree with the statement that the motivational sphere of a person is dynamic, formed on the basis of situational factors and is realized at a specific point in time. At the same time, the characteristic of the stability of the motivational sphere depends on the subjective emotional experience of reality and physical characteristics (reaction speed, etc.).

In this regard, it should be noted that any individual strives in the process of his social relations in general, and in the process of his labor activity in particular, to achieve a position in which the level of exchange equivalence for him would be maximum. The guarantee of the equivalence of remuneration to the results of labor is the key to the success of stimulating the labor activity of the employee. This fact must be taken into account when designing and building a personnel incentive system.

The main provisions of the concept of social exchange make it possible to single out the basic elements that determine the efficiency of labor activity and determine the possibility of creating an equivalent exchange. These include[159]

• the system of expectations of the employee in relation to the benefits received from the organization, based on ideas about the quality of life, the level of social relationships, on the one hand, and the system of expectations of the organization in relation to the performance and nature of the employee's work, on the other;

• the system of criteria for assessing the immediate result and the labor process by the employee and the organization;

• the motivational structure of the personality, which is formed on the basis of the psychophysiological characteristics of the employee, situational factors, which is realized at a particular moment in time.

The parameters for assessing the level of equivalence of social exchange between participants in labor relations are:

1. the level of consistency of the elements of the system of expectations of the employee and the organization;

2. the level of validity of the criteria for assessing the results of labor activity;

3. the level of comparability of the characteristics of the motivational structure of the personality with the characteristics of the stimulating effect.

To summarize, the following can be summarized:

Human labor activity is a social voluntary interaction aimed at results; it is based on social exchange and guarantees the participants in the labor relationship a certain level of mutual benefit. The mechanism of social exchange involves motivation to participate. Thus, a high-quality incentive system should guarantee the equivalence of social exchange, the awareness of which optimizes the labor activity of workers.

The criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the process of stimulating labor activity is the level of equivalence of social exchange between participants in labor relations.

 

2.2. Social qualities of the personnel incentive system

      Having defined the human labor activity as social interaction based on social exchange, which guarantees the participants in labor relations a certain level of mutual usefulness, it can be argued that the mechanism of social exchange presupposes motivation to participate. That is, in order to involve an individual in activities, in work, it is necessary to interest him, that is, to kind of stimulate this interest. Since the object of managerial influence is a person, a creature by its nature is social, then in order to achieve the greatest efficiency of managerial influences, it is necessary to endow the incentive system with social qualities that characterize the potential for achieving social results and development. A person works in a team, and in the event of alienation from him, incentives to work may be lost. In this regard, the incentive system and the incentives themselves can be individually oriented or group oriented, but must always be socially oriented.

As it was revealed earlier, a person in his labor activity is driven not only by material interest, but also by a number of other stimulating factors, such as love for work, passion for the profession, etc. All this allows us to assert that the construction of the entire incentive system in the organization should take place on the so-called «social» basis, i.e. so as not only to elementarily satisfy the urgent needs of the employee and provide him with the opportunity to continue to exist (albeit comfortable), but also to contribute to the development of his personality, instill pride in his work, as well as ensure the stability of the organization and contribute to its further growth and expansion.

Such a new incentive system that meets the above requirements will be the system that possesses «sociality» or, in other words, social qualities, ensuring the implementation of the social goal of the personnel management system, that is, the achievement of a given degree of social needs of workers.

In this consideration, the social qualities of the incentive system are as follows:

1. Freedom of choice by the individual of the incentive system. Since in the process of labor activity an individual interacts with social subjects, the fundamental element of such interaction is the right to freely enter into such interactions, the right to choose activities in the organization that most fully meets the requirements of the employee and his expectations. This quality stems from the requirements for the legality of the construction of incentive systems, which should be based on the Labor Code of the Russian Federation and other regulatory legal acts.

This quality follows from the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the corresponding provision of which states that labor is free. Everyone has the right to freely dispose of their abilities for work, to choose their type of activity and profession. Every person «has the right to work in conditions that meet the requirements of safety and hygiene, to remuneration for work without any discrimination and not lower than the minimum wage established by federal law, as well as the right to protection from unemployment»[160].

2. Providing employees with personally significant results (social and material benefits). Providing an employee with the benefits that he really needs is the first step towards building a high-quality socially-oriented incentive system, since personal interest is the main argument in favor of working in a particular company.

Here it is necessary to take into account that the motivational sphere of the personality is dynamic, formed in a specific period of time. Therefore, in order to reward an individual with personally significant results, an analysis of his individual characteristics is necessary. These features include characteristics such as marital status, gender, age, etc. This approach is also necessary when managing the business career of personnel, since with age and the development of professional skills, both the goals and needs of the employee change.

3. Social protection of personnel. It is aimed at monitoring compliance with the legislation in force in the Russian Federation and ensuring social guarantees for employees, such as annual paid leave, paid sick leave, etc. Social guarantees are a mechanism of long-term action, the obligations of the state provided for by law, aimed at observing and realizing the constitutional rights of citizens. The basis of state social guarantees is the minimum social guarantees, such as wages, pensions, health care, etc.

The direct role of organizations in the social protection of personnel is reduced to compliance with the minimum wage, making contributions to pension and health insurance for workers.

The provision of social guarantees allows us to talk about the social attractiveness of the enterprise for the personnel. Here, the social development of the organization also plays an important role[161], where the main social guidelines of management are:

  • creation of favorable conditions for work and rest of the employees of the organization;
  • remuneration for work;
  • social protection of personnel;
  • maintaining an optimal moral and psychological atmosphere in the team.

 4. Interdependence of the employee's contribution and the remuneration he receives. This quality presupposes the presence of a labor rate setting service, study and calculation of working hours, etc. Due to the presence of clear positions in the field of remuneration and bonuses, it is possible to achieve an increase in labor productivity in organizations without the introduction of any other technologies, since it is precisely «confidence in the future» that is very often one of the main stimulating factors of work in a particular organization.

One of the ways to assess the employee's contribution to the organizational process is the method for determining the weight of the position (position assessment). With this approach, the following characteristics of the position are assessed in a complex:

  • knowledge and skills necessary to perform production functions, including interpersonal communication skills;
  • the ability to solve production issues and make competent decisions, including the frequency of occurrence of problem situations;
  • the size of official assignments and responsibilities assigned to this official unit. 

 5. The reciprocity of the interests of the organization and the employee, which implies a mutually interested relationship between the organization and the personnel, as a result of which long-term cooperation is ensured.

Long-term cooperation between the organization and the staff, i.e., in other words, a decrease in staff turnover can be achieved by focusing on the concept of the quality of working life[162] (QWL), the essence of which is to improve labor motivation, to ensure the diversity and enrichment of the content of labor, the full use of the intellectual, creative and mental potential of the employee. The QWL system includes a set of values:

  • self-actualization in professional activity, in which the organization creates such conditions for the employee to develop and use all his abilities;
  • growth prospects - maintaining the employee's confidence in a work that is favorable for him;
  • remuneration for work in order to maintain motivation at the required level of the organization;
  • safety - ensuring safe working conditions;
  • moral and psychological atmosphere;
  • work optimality - work is not an obstacle to leisure and recreation, personal growth and family relations, but by its results and focus should contribute to the development of these components.

6. Streamlining the choice of business contacts, in which the employee is given the opportunity to substantiate the advisability of involving a certain circle of employees in labor activities to perform production tasks. This quality refers to the psychological relationships within the team. The importance and necessity of assessing the level of harmony of intra-organizational relations has long been known and proven by researchers. 

The method for assessing psychological relationships is the sociometric technique developed by J. Moreno[163],which is used to diagnose interpersonal and intergroup relationships in order to change, improve and improve them. With the help of sociometry, it is possible to study the typology of social behavior of people in the conditions of group activity, to judge the socio-psychological compatibility of members of specific groups.

The sociometric procedure[164] can have several purposes of carrying out:

a) measuring the degree of cohesion-disunity in the group;

b) identifying «sociometric positions», that is, the relative authority of the group members on the basis of sympathy-antipathy, where the «leader» of the group and the «rejected» find themselves at the extreme poles;

c) detection of intragroup subsystems, cohesive formations, which may be headed by their own informal leaders.

The use of sociometry makes it possible to measure the authority of formal and informal leaders for regrouping people in teams so as to reduce tensions in the team arising from the mutual hostility of some members of the group. The sociometric technique is carried out by a group method, its implementation does not require much time (up to 15 minutes). It is very useful in applied research, especially in work to improve team relationships.

During the sociometric procedure, participants may be asked the following types of questions:

  • Questions to study business relationships:
    • Who would you go on a long business trip with?
    • Which of your colleagues would you turn to for help in a business matter first?
    • Who do you consider worthy to serve as a leader?
  • Questions to explore personal relationships:
    • Which of your colleagues would you turn to for help in resolving a difficult life situation in the first place?
    • Which of your colleagues would you never ask for advice?
    • Which of your colleagues would you like to invite to your birthday? etc.

Such a «social» approach to labor incentives will avoid such a negative phenomenon as alienation[165]. For Karl Marx, alienation is the loss of the meaning of existence by the workers in the labor process in the era of capitalism, it is the process of separating the process and the results of their activities from people. Most 21st century thinkers are skeptical about the ability to overcome alienation completely. Many see the main task in helping a person intellectually and morally to live with dignity in modern society, to feel dignified in the workplace. And the stimulation of labor activity as a way of managing a person in an organization should be subordinated to this task.

 

 

CHAPTER 3

DESIGNING QUALITATIVE PERSONNEL INCENTIVES SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

 

3.1. Pre-project study of labor incentive systems

It should be noted that the above parameters of the equivalence of social exchange cannot exist as single, independent phenomena.

It is rather difficult to identify which needs are leading in the motivational process of a particular person in certain conditions and constitute a motivational complex. After all, the needs themselves are in a complex constantly changing interaction and can contradict each other. However, in any situation and any person there are motives that direct and orient him. The predominance of certain reference points in activity influences the choice of an individual's behavior. «In a person there is, of course, a certain unchanging core, that is, those of his features that leave an imprint on all his behavior. Based on them, some are guided mainly by material incentives, others are guided by a sense of duty, and still others try to avoid criticism»[166].

There can be a huge number of similar goals and motives, and the choice of means and ways to achieve them directly depends on their nature, which allows us to talk about the presence of various types of behavior in the organization. Knowledge of the landmarks of a person's activity, his motives, needs and expectations makes it possible to form the labor behavior of personnel that is appropriate for the organization with the help of stimulating influence.

It should be noted that the elements of labor activity, which determine its effectiveness, exist as interrelated and interdependent. The fundamental element, along with the system of employee expectations and the system of assessment criteria, can be considered the motivational structure of the personality, since it has the strongest influence on human behavior in the organization.

In this case, what could be simpler than to study the characteristics of the employee's personality, his needs and offer him what he wants, and in return get the expected result? Moreover, there are techniques necessary for this.

 Among the most famous: the tests of Kettel, Rorschach, the methods of Eysenck, Kucher, the test-questionnaire of the achievement motivation of A. Mehrabyan, the diagnosis of personality for the motivation for success of T. Ehlers.

I.G. Kokurina[167] offers an interesting method for studying work motivation. The methodology is based on the concept of two main semantic orientations:

1) procedural orientation, in which a person's activity is within a limited framework of activity;

2) the resulting orientation, which suggests a higher level of activity. It is the focus on results that allows you to go beyond the scope of activities.

The labor motive itself is understood as «the process of filling the most significant labor incentives with meanings, as a result of which a structure emerges in the form of a hierarchy of meaning-forming motives, capable of exerting a reverse influence on the labor behavior of an individual».[168]

The questionnaire is composed of texts that contain categories of interest to the researcher, in particular, certain motivational orientations.

The subject is asked to choose one of the two definitions that are closest to him in meaning. For example, «money is:

1) a means that gives a person the opportunity to satisfy their interests and hobbies in addition to the profession;

2) payment for work, which you share with people close to you». 

 

Content and interpretation of the components of labor motivation

Motivation type

Resulting orientation

Procedural orientation

1. Transformative motive

Focus on getting results for the sake of the result itself

Activity orientation for the sake of the process itself, the achievement of mastery

2. Communicative motive

Orientation to active interaction with others, to communication at work, to helping another person

Focus on maintaining positive relationships with others

3. Utilitarian-pragmatic motive

Orientation on the use of their labor to meet other needs that are not hard to do

Focus on work as a waste of energy, striving to maintain health in work

4. Cooperative motive

Orientation - to consider your work from the point of view of its social usefulness, necessity for other people, for society as a whole

Orientation - to consider your work in terms of its usefulness for relatives and friends

5. Competitive motive

Orientation - to be better than others, to have high prestige, authority

Orientation - to be no worse than others, to be like everyone else

6. Motive of achievement

Orientation on overcoming obstacles, the desire to set super tasks for yourself

Focus on self-improvement, on the development of their abilities

 

A total of 108 questions (pairs of statements) are proposed, divided into three groups:

• attitude to money;

• attitude to team;

• attitude to work.

E.A. Kupriyanov and A.G. Shmelev and his co-workers propose a methodology for studying the structure of labor motivation, which is based on the factor structure of labor motives.

Based on the results of the technique, it is possible to determine the orientation of the subject to:

1) involvement in the labor process;

2) material well-being;

3) interest (in the process itself, in the content of labor);

4) self-realization;

5) power;

6) public importance;

7) autonomy of labor;

8) working conditions;

9) career;

10) recognition;

11) health and safety[169].

 

The approach of S.V. Ivanova, who suggests using projective questions in assessing the level of motivation using specially developed «maps of motivators» and situational interviews[170]. Let's give an example of projective questions.

Projective questions

 

Projective question

 Estimated factor

1

What motivates people to work most effectively?

Motivation

2

What attracts people to work?

Motivation

3

What can make a person quit?

Motivation

4

Which team is the most productive?

What are the most comfortable relationships in the team for employees?

Team preferences

5

Why do people want to be successful in their careers?

Motivation for career growth

6

In what situations is it okay to lie?

 Allowing cheating and assessing honesty

7

Imagine this situation: an employee has worked in the company for a probationary period, he is completely satisfied with the management, but at the same time decides to leave. Think about what it is connected with.

Motivation + unacceptable moments for a person at work

8

Even in the absence of a leader and control from his side, employees work effectively. Why?

Motivation + loyalty to work and company

9

What kind of workers are most often recruited for good positions?

Model of success

10

What should be a good employee?

Model of success and expectations

11

What should be a good leader?

Understanding leadership style

                                                                                                           

Another assessment technique was proposed by S. Ritchie and P. Martin and was named «Motivational Profile». It allows you to assess motivation in the following positions:

1) high earnings and material incentives;

2) physical working conditions;

3) structuring (organization of time, predictability, developed business communications, etc.);

4) social contacts;

5) relationships;

6) recognition;

7) striving for achievements;

8) power and influence;

9) diversity and change;

10) creativity (independence, creativity);

11) self-improvement;

12) interesting and useful work[171].

The All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion under the leadership of Academician T.I. Zaslavskaya developed a methodology that involves the study of attitudes towards work and the motives of work. [172].

The research was carried out in three main directions: motives of main employment, motives of additional employment and motives of changing jobs.

1. The motives of the main employment. When studying labor motivation, a scale was used, which consists of four main levels:

• the lowest level of labor motivation, when work is an unpleasant duty for the employee and, if there was an opportunity, he would not work at all;

• work is viewed by a specialist almost exclusively as a source of livelihood;

• work is recognized as important, but not so much as to overshadow other areas of life;

• the highest level of labor motivation, which implies that work for the respondents is important and interesting, regardless of pay.

In their pure form, these levels of motivation do not occur. Usually they are present in some combination, although for each period and under certain economic conditions, a predominance of one or another type of labor motivation is characteristic.

This technique involves the subdivision of specialists into groups of signs and the level of labor motivation. The most important is the professional and job status of workers, followed by gender and age characteristics.

2. Motives for additional employment:

• the desire to increase income from the main job;

• desire to get a stable job and extra earnings at the additional job;

• desire to have an interesting job and the opportunity to fully realize their abilities and skills;

• make the necessary acquaintances and business connections.

This line of research identifies respondents who do not need additional earnings, as well as those who experience difficulties in finding additional earnings.

3. Motives for changing jobs:

• unfavorable working conditions and incomplete use of the labor potential of the respondents;

• poor or harmful working conditions;

• dissatisfaction with wages at the main place of work;

• uninteresting work, inability to make a career;

• potential turnover and abandonment due to fears that the business will be closed and the employee will remain unemployed;

• motives for changing the profession or workplace;

• higher earnings;

• more pleasant, interesting work;

• good conditions with a comfortable working regime;

• the desire to get a profession for which there is now a great demand and for which it is easier to find a job;

• change of profession or professional development in order to stay in your enterprise, to avoid dismissal.

We can say with confidence that there are various methods of studying work motivation. But even knowledge of the revealed logic of the stimulation process, alas, cannot guarantee success in managing this process. Why? Because an important determinant here is the non-obviousness of most of the motives for the behavior of an individual in general and an employee of an organization, in particular. One can only assume which motives prevail in which cases, but it is still quite difficult to determine and identify them in a specific form.

It is very difficult to identify which needs are leading in the motivational process of a particular person in certain conditions. After all, the needs themselves are in a complex constantly changing interaction and therefore they may even contradict each other. By virtue of this, to assert that a person is always rational in his actions is not correct and unreasonable. Indeed, the very concept of «exchange» refers to voluntary actions that are due to reciprocal rewards. But people in the process of their professional activities are able to be guided not only by an orientation towards their own interests, «but they can also be guided by other aspirations - altruism, a sense of justice, conformity to status, etc.»[173]. And not every work activity is an exclusively voluntary choice of an individual. This choice is free and voluntary within the framework of the prevailing social conditions.

In modern management practice, various motivational types are distinguished.

One of the classification features is the ratio in the hierarchy of motives of individuals of motives-achievement, and motives-avoidance (motivational typology of Vladimir Isakovich Gerchikov)[174].

Achievement motivation means that an employee with such motivation strives to achieve something, deserve, earn, improve labor results, increase its efficiency and quality. Avoidance motivation means that a person works out of fear, since he does not want punishment, manifestations of discontent from the authorities.

Thus, there are five motivational types:

1. instrumental motivational type. The employee is interested in the amount of earnings and other benefits received as remuneration for work, the desire to ensure a high social and living standard for himself and his family.

2. professional motivational type. The employee is interested in the content of the work (interestingness, variety), the opportunity to prove himself, focus on continuous professional improvement. Salary is viewed by such employees as an indicator of how much the company's management values ​​its knowledge and professionalism.

3. patriotic motivational type. The employee is interested in participation in the implementation of a common cause, recognition of his participation in common significant achievements, is distinguished by his conviction in the need for an organization and a willingness to take on additional responsibility, if necessary.

4. master's motivational type. The employee is characterized by fully assumed personal responsibility, striving for maximum independence. (Typical for entrepreneurs, not employees).

5. employee with avoidant motivation. The employee is characterized by the desire to minimize his labor efforts, the lack of desire for promotion. (But such workers are also needed).

 

                 Another classification criterion for determining motivational types was the degree of job satisfaction and commitment to the organization.

                 Job satisfaction [175] – it is a pleasant positive emotional state based on the assessment of their work and resulting from the perception by the employees themselves of how fully the work provides important, from their point of view, needs.

                 Organization commitment [176] – it is the degree of psychological identification with the organization, when the employee shares and makes his own goals of the organization and its values.

                 From this position, a study was conducted by Taylor Nelson Sofres (TNS) in 33 countries. (An analytical agency engaged in market research and has offices in 80 countries around the world). 20,000 full-time people were surveyed. The data obtained allowed us to distinguish four types of employees, differing in the degree of commitment to the company and the degree of job satisfaction:

1. «career-oriented workers»;

2. «enthusiasts»;

3. «dissatisfied»;

4. «company-oriented».

Another technique for analyzing labor motivation was a technique that allows one to assess the ratio of external and internal motives in the motivational structure of an employee. The basis for the analysis of the motivational structure of the personality of employees was an empirical sociological study of the motives for work of employees of commercial organizations (see: Appendix 1), built on a survey of employees (questionnaire survey). The survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire (see: Appendices 2-4).

 

668 respondents were involved at various stages of the study.

 

 

Diagram 1. Object of the general population

Diagram 2. Subject of the research sample No. 1

 

Based on the research results, the following conclusion can be drawn:

Employees of organizations can be divided into four types, depending on the predominance of their motives of an external and internal nature. Determining the motivational type of workers allows you to choose methods of stimulating influence, which in turn contributes to the formation of appropriate labor behavior.

During the study, the following results were obtained: 

– 189 respondents (type 1) belong to the «mixed type of motivation» [177] (approximately equal ratio of external and internal motives);

– 218 respondents (type 2) belong to the «pragmatic type of motivation» (predominance of external motives);

– 157 respondents (type 3) belong to the «humanistic type of motivation» (the predominance of internal motives);

– 104 respondents (type 4) belong to the «undefined type of motivation» (low values of both groups of motives).

Diagram 3. Results of research No. 1

 

«Pragmatic type of motivation» prevails in men (123 out of 218).

«Humanistic type of motivation» prevails among women (90 out of 157).

«Mixed type of motivation» prevails among managers (35 out of 60).

«Undefined type of motivation» is more typical for low-skilled workers (32 out of 41).

Type 1. For this type, the motives of the first and second groups (motives of the external character of motivation and of the internal character) received equal values. The respondents of this group marked both external and internal groups of motives with equal indicators. This suggests that representatives of this empirical model equally value for themselves both material and spiritual satisfaction from work. Such people have clear goals in life and work, which initially sets their work activities purposeful.

The goal is the result of an action ideally set in the form of a goal, in other words, a motivated, conscious, expressed in words anticipation of the future result, which is a condition and (or) reason for achieving this result. Hence, target behavior is not “goal-directed” behavior, but “goal-directed (from goal to result)” behavior.

The goal is the result of an action ideally set in the form of a goal, in other words, a motivated, conscious, expressed in words anticipation of the future result [178], which is a condition and (or) reason for achieving this result. Hence, target behavior is not «goal-directed» behavior, but «goal-directed (from goal to result) behavior»[179]. The goal expresses a certain desired level of satisfaction of needs, values, etc. Having a clear idea of the desired results of their actions, it is much easier for a person with clear orientations to build a line of behavior in the organization and evaluate the rewards received.

The presence of equal values of the coefficients of the personal significance of both groups of motives gives grounds to refer these motivational orientations of professional activity to a mixed group of motivational orientations.

Type 2. High indicators for this type were obtained by motives for achieving their own prestige, money earnings, obtaining the desired life status (which subsequently makes it possible to buy prestigious things), that is, motives of a material nature. This fact speaks of the desire of a person of this type to consolidate or increase the occupied socio-economic status: «the ability to own consumer goods becomes part of the social position, status, being, essence of the individual».[180]

High indicators of the value of money earnings indicate the desire to obtain a higher level of material well-being. People of this type are convinced that material wealth is the main component of life's well-being and is the basis for developing a sense of self-worth and increasing self-esteem. Such employees, as a rule, work in the organization only because they receive material benefits. They are not motivated by the work itself, as such, professional activity for them is only a way to achieve material well-being. Such employees value work in any particular organization only until it is profitable for them, they are not tied to the company, they can often change jobs in search of higher earnings.

As a rule, people of this type are good professionals, as they are able to find a new job and almost always with a higher salary than in the previous job. For an organization, this type of employee is valuable from a professional point of view, but not every company can afford to retain such employees only by a constant increase in the material component of remuneration, and therefore the need to stimulate personnel with new methods, the formation of a new corporate culture and corporate spirit is imminent.

High indicators of motives of material interest in work give reason to classify workers of this empirical model as a pragmatic type of motivation for professional activity (material motivational orientations of professional activity).

Type 3. For workers of this type, the main motives for work were the development of oneself as a professional, a sense of pride in their work and its results, awareness of their own significance, conviction in the importance of the chosen business, the social significance of the profession, that is, the so-called spiritual satisfaction. Taking into account the secondary importance of the level of labor income, it can be assumed that for this type of workers, material remuneration as a result of labor is not dominant. Rather, on the contrary, representatives of this group will prefer lower wages, provided they are morally satisfied with their work. «For an adult, work is the main sphere of social life. It provides psychological balance by stimulating positive emotions (joy, interest)»[181]. This explains the high need for spiritual satisfaction from work, characteristic of this type of personnel.

This fact proves once again that at the present stage of development of society, people in an organization can no longer be managed on the basis of strict economic regulations and standards. There is an urgent need for a new system of personnel incentives, which will meet the needs for the spiritual component of work and will contribute to the formation of «loyal and flexible» personnel based on moral and ethical values.

In addition, this group of people is characterized by a serious attitude towards their duties, exactingness towards themselves. The high indicators of the achievement motive inherent in this type of people show the person's desire to achieve tangible results in the professional sphere. But it should be noted that the «perceptibility» of the results is determined by the person himself through the inner experience of «reward». According to V.G. Aliev and S.V. Dokholyan, proceeding from McClelland's theory of the content of motives, «the presence of a high need for achievement among workers influences their activity and performance. This need can be attributed not only to the characteristics of individuals, but also to the characteristics of individual societies and groups»[182].

Another important indicator that characterizes this group is the importance of the value of self-development, which implies the desire to fully realize the inherent abilities, that is, to achieve professional self-actualization.

A. Maslow defines self-actualization as «long-term, constant involvement in the process of growth and development of abilities to the maximum possible». Self-actualization in his understanding is «a person's striving for self-incarnation, for actualizing the potentialities inherent in him».[183] Self-actualization in any of the social concepts is assessed as the highest human need. It can permeate any other need and can also be defined as a person's fulfillment of his calling.

High indicators of motives for a sense of pride in their profession, a sense of the importance of «business» indicate the desire of a person with this type of motivation to work in the profession of his choice, which gives grounds to classify workers of this empirical model as a humanistic type of motivation for professional activity (spiritual motivational orientations of professional activity).

Type 4. For this type of employees, both groups of motives received low coefficients of personal significance. Representatives of this group were unable to build a hierarchy of motives. This phenomenon means that people with similar characteristics do not have pronounced motives for activity or are not aware of them, and, therefore, their labor activity does not have a purposeful nature, that is, certain goals of activity. Such a state of the motivational sphere of personnel is very dangerous for the organization, since the results and quality of work are sharply reduced for employees with a lack of performance goals.

The behavior of such workers is not directed towards any specific object, or towards any goal; it looks senseless, irrational. A person cannot convincingly formulate its goal or meaning, does not choose means, does not expect specific rewards.

On the other hand, it can be pseudo-non-directional behavior[184], behavior simply not understood (both by the observer and by the subject of the action himself), not formulated in rational terms, although, perhaps, it is simply not realized at a given moment in time. It can be a search for a reference point, undirected activity at various levels of behavior. The meaning of this activity is the search for an object, a goal, a reference point for activity. It is also possible impulsive behavior as not yet realized and not turned into a goal, which does not have guidelines for the realization of needs, motives, and aspirations. Such behavior situationally represents a simple instinctive reaction of the individual to those situations for which she does not have ready-made guidelines, and there is no way to form them at the moment.

Low coefficients of the personal significance of labor motives give grounds to classify the motivational orientations of the professional activity of this empirical model as indefinite motivational orientations.

Given the systematic nature of the research approach to the analysis of the motives of professional activity, the identified grounds for typologizing groups of employees can be considered a unified form of modeling work collectives based on the conformity of the hierarchy of value-motivational guidelines in labor activity.

So, the empirical models of employees obtained in the course of the study allow us to conclude that the entire personnel of the organization can be divided into four types, each of which has certain motivational orientations:

Type 1: equal ratio of external and internal motives of professional activity;

Type 2: the predominance of external motives of professional activity;

Type 3: the predominance of internal motives of professional activity;

Type 4: there is no clear expression in the motivational sphere of the personality.

 

Analysis of personal expectations systems of personnel

One of the most important elements that determine the efficiency of labor activity is the system of individual expectations, which is also a parameter and element of research and design of labor incentive systems. Expectations largely shape the type of work behavior.

As for the system of criteria for assessing the immediate result and the labor process by the employee and the organization, this parameter directly depends on the motivational complex and the system of expectations, it is largely formed and conditioned by them.

Human activity is not just a set of separate actions and deeds, it is purposeful in nature. What he aspires to, what he intends to receive as a result of his activity, acts for him as a goal, that is, directs his activity and gives it meaning. This statement is especially characteristic of work[185]. In any behavior there is a motive that determines exactly this particular form of its manifestation[186]. Purposeful behavior presupposes the behavior of the individual in accordance with the chosen goal. There can be a huge number of such goals. The choice of means and ways to achieve them directly depends on their nature, which allows us to speak about the presence of various types of purposeful behavior as a life strategy and the presence of various levels of social aspirations. In this regard, it can be assumed that the type of labor behavior depends on the motives of professional activity and on the level of the employee's expectations, that is, on what he wants to get as a result for his work. «Motivation of behavior is a complex-structured system of stimuli (motives) of a person's activity, which determines the choice of certain forms of behavior in specific situations»[187]. Motivation of behavior is determined by the complexity of the structure of interests, needs and value orientations of the individual.

The dispositional concept in relation to work behavior proves that behavior regulators are organized hierarchically and determine the individual's predisposition to a certain type of behavior. The hierarchy of dispositions is associated with the hierarchy of personality needs, its motives for activity[188]. The highest level of disposition - value orientations - determine the strategy of behavior, basic social attitudes regulate the activity of an individual in a special (professional) environment. When choosing a specific option for behavior, an individual correlates the situation with accumulated experience, with his needs, motives and expectations. In this case, all levels of dispositions are involved in the choice, but at a particular moment in time one of these levels may acquire a dominant character[189].

 

This approach provides grounds for identifying different types of labor behavior depending on the employee's motivational type and the system of expectations characteristic of this type. In this case, expectation means what a person wants or expects to receive in the course of his professional activity, what he starts his labor activity for.

According to the results of the study, the system of employee expectations is not universal for all types of employees (see: Appendices 5-8).

Diagram 4. Subject of the research sample No. 2

 

Based on the analysis of the data obtained during the study (see: Appendix 10), four different waiting systems were obtained:

- 180 respondents refer to a «mixed system of expectations»;

- 212 respondents refer to the «system of material expectations»;

- 144 respondents refer to the «intangible expectations system»;

- 94 respondents refer to the «ambiguous system of expectations». 

Diagram 5. Results of research No. 2

 

In the course of comparing the results of the two studies, a regularity was revealed that the mixed type of motivational orientations is characterized by a mixed system of employee expectations in relation to the organization. This means that workers with such a system of expectations equally noted the importance of the material and moral factor of labor. For them, the most important thing is to achieve harmony and balance between the material and moral components of work.

      For workers with a pragmatic type of motivational orientations, a system of material expectations is characteristic. This means that employees in their work activities and in choosing an organization are guided mainly by material expectations (wages, social benefits, convenience of the place of work, etc.).

      For workers with a humanistic type of motivational orientations, a system of expectations of an intangible (spiritual) nature is characteristic. This means that workers in their professional activities are guided not by wages, but by the content of the work. The most important thing for them is the expectation that their work will be socially significant and useful to others, rather than that it will be prestigious and highly paid.

      For workers with an indefinite type of motivational orientations, an ambiguous system of expectations is characteristic. It is characterized by the absence of unambiguous and understandable motives, in connection with which the expectations of such workers vary and do not have a pronounced definite character.

Having indicated that the type of labor behavior is determined by the type of motivation, the structure of expectations, accumulated experience, it becomes possible to single out the main types of labor behavior.

For employees belonging to the mixed type of motivational orientations and systems of expectations, the partner type of behavior is characteristic, expressed in the willingness to make efforts to work for the sake of the organization, in an effort to achieve harmony between the external and internal motives of their work. The commitment to organization of such employees is usually normative[190] and is explained by the fact that they feel a kind of debt to the organization for the work opportunities provided to them. This kind of compromise between employee and organization is very effective and produces good results in terms of productivity and labor, use of working time and loyalty. Such an employee builds his relationship with the organization on the basis of a partnership principle and, subject to the opportunity to satisfy his material and non-material needs, remains loyal to the organization for a long time, effectively performing his work duties. 

The idea of ought[191] also serves as a guideline of behavior for a person of this type of behavior. The purest expression of this mechanism of orientation is morality, which is a specifically volitional self-regulation of behavior, where a person gives himself a law of behavior (and in this sense he is free here), but deduces this law not from his own nature (needs, interests, aspirations), but from his idea of ​​what should be. The functions of following duty are the conscious formation of one's own personality, orientation of behavior in a situation of maximum personal and (or) social uncertainty, creation of the possibility of strategic behavior.

For workers belonging to the material (pragmatic) type of motivational orientations and to the system of labor expectations of a material nature, the consumer type of behavior is inherent. Employees with this type of behavior do not feel attached to the organization, do not perceive organizational values ​​and goals as their own. Such self-directed human behavior[192] is focused not on external objects, but on oneself as a person. The focus of behavior on one's own personality consists in the desire to be (not to be) or to become (not to become) someone, to acquire or retain some traits or internal states.

The commitment of such employees to the organization is, as a rule, behavioral[193] and is explained by the fact that the employee associates his work activity with a specific organization for as long as it is beneficial to him. Such workers can achieve success in their professional activities, but due to the low level of development of their organizational culture, they do not feel a sense of involvement in a common cause, and, consequently, in a specific organization.

For workers belonging to the humanistic (spiritual) type of motivational orientations and the system of labor expectations of a non-material nature, an interested type of behavior is characteristic, since workers of this type perceive work as the main sphere of self-realization, and the main motive of their activity is not earnings, but the content of labor itself. They are characterized by emotional[194] commitment to the organization, which is expressed in the fact that employees identify themselves with the organization, perceive its goals and values and obey its requirements, since they matter to them, relate to their needs, interests, aspirations. 

Values are any material or ideal, real or imaginary object in relation to which people take the position of personal assessment, attach importance to it in their lives, and feel the desire to possess it as a need. Values give grounds for choosing from the available alternatives of action (goals and means), grounds for ordering preferences, selection and evaluation of these alternatives; they define some "boundaries" of actions, that is, they not only direct, but also regulate these actions[195]

Such employees are valuable for the organization, since they are the most loyal and associate their work with a specific organization for the long term, and they work effectively and efficiently.

For workers belonging to an indefinite type of motivational orientations and an ambiguous system of expectations, an indifferent type of behavior is characteristic. This type of behavior is characterized by the absence of an unambiguous version of behavior, since the relationship with the organization for an individual is uncertain. Most often, the behavior of such an employee is situational and depends on a specific moment in time or the circumstances of its initiator, since the individual does not have a clearly formulated goal of behavior and motive for activity, which allows his behavior to vary depending on the situation.

The named types of labor behavior differ from each other in content orientation and effectiveness. Another important feature that makes it possible to understand the work orientation of a person is the person's unique ability to self-regulation. The idea of ​​self-regulation is rooted in the social-cognitive theory of A. Bandura and his work “principles of behavior modification”. According to this idea, by predicting the consequences of his own actions, a person is able to influence his behavior. Many actions of people are regulated by self-imposed reinforcements. Self-reinforcement takes place whenever a person sets the limit of achievement for himself.

Self-regulating impulses enhance behavior through the motivational function. That is, as a result of self-satisfaction from achieving certain goals, a person has a motive to make more and more efforts necessary to achieve the desired behavior.

A wide range of human behavior is regulated by self-esteem reactions, expressed both in the form of self-satisfaction, pride in their successes, and self-dissatisfaction and self-criticism. An important concept in social cognitive theory is the concept of self-efficacy, which refers to the ability of people to become aware of their ability to build behavior appropriate to a specific task or situation. Such "self-government" is most inherent in people with partner or interested types of behavior, and to the least - with consumer and indifferent types.

So, in the course of the conducted sociological studies, the following correlations were identified and it was proved that:

• the system of labor expectations of the employee is determined by the system of motives;

• the type of employee behavior depends on the nature of the interaction of labor participants and their perception of the organization of the production process.

The identified dependencies made it possible to build a typology of personnel behavior in the organization:

- the mixed type of motivational orientations is characterized by a mixed system of employee expectations, expressed in the partner type of behavior;

- for workers with a pragmatic type of motivational orientations, a system of expectations of a material nature is characteristic, expressed in a consumer type of behavior;

- for workers with a humanistic type of motivational orientations, a system of expectations of an intangible (spiritual) nature is characteristic, expressed in an interested type of behavior;

- workers with an indefinite type of motivational orientations are characterized by an ambiguous system of expectations, expressed in an indifferent type of behavior.

Taking into account the systematic nature of the research approach to the analysis of the motives of professional activity, the identified grounds for the typologization of groups of employees can be considered a unified form of modeling work collectives based on the conformity of the hierarchy of value-motivational guidelines in labor activity.

 

 

3.2. Assessment of the quality of incentive systems

The main provisions of the concept of social exchange made it possible to single out the basic elements for determining the effectiveness of labor activity and creating the opportunity to create an equivalent exchange. These include:

• the system of expectations of the employee and the system of expectations of the organization;

• the system of criteria for assessing the immediate result and the labor process by the employee and the organization;

• the motivational structure of the personality.

To a certain extent, any manager can feel that the incentive system is not bringing the desired results. But in order to more accurately understand what the problem of a particular employee is, what is actually happening and to evaluate the incentive system, a specific method is needed. This technique should take into account the coordination of systems of motives, expectations and manifestations of the type of behavior with the organizational system of incentives for personnel and the type of managerial influences.

Consider the technology for evaluating the incentive system.

At the first stage, the motivational type of the employee is determined. Based on the results of this study, the employee's belonging to one of the motivational types is revealed (consider the methodology using the example of determining the type of motivation depending on the ratio of internal and external motives):

• mixed type of motivation;

• pragmatic type of motivation;

• humanistic type of motivation;

• indeterminate type of motivation.

According to the analysis of the results of the study, each of these types has its own individual unique system of labor expectations.

For a mixed type of motivation, the system of labor expectations is also of a mixed type and represents the following hierarchy:

1. money earnings;

2. the social significance of the chosen profession;

3. striving for advancement at work;

4. the need for communication;

5. getting satisfaction from the very process of work;

6. the possibility of the most complete self-realization in this particular activity;

7. obtaining the desired life status, etc.

For the pragmatic type of motivation, the system of labor expectations is material in nature and represents the following hierarchy:

1. money earnings;

2. striving for advancement at work;

3. social security and benefits;

4. obtaining the desired life status;

5. the ability to buy prestigious items;

6. the social significance of the chosen profession;

7. conviction of the importance of the chosen type of activity, etc.

For the humanistic type of motivation, the hierarchy of the system of labor expectations looks different and is a system of an intangible nature

1. satisfaction from the process itself and the result of the work;

2. the possibility of the most complete self-realization in this particular activity;

3. a sense of the social significance of the chosen profession;

4. the need for communication;

5. dream of working in a certain specialty;

6. money earnings;

7. the ability to buy prestigious items, etc.

For an indefinite type of motivation, the system of labor expectations cannot be determined as unambiguously as in the first three options, since the uncertainty of motives also gives rise to ambiguity in labor expectations. This means the instability and dynamism of the structure of expectations, which does not provide an opportunity and basis to build any hierarchy.

Having determined in this way the motivational type of the employee and the corresponding system of labor expectations, it is necessary to carry out a similar procedure for the organization. The head of an organization or department draws up his own list of expectations regarding the employee, characterizing the current needs of the organization, which determine the requirements for the employee and may include various blocks, ranging from educational requirements to work experience. These blocks are unique for different organizations and depend on the type, form of ownership, type of activity, etc. Further, the employee is invited to mark in the list those items that satisfy him in the organization, that is, those expectations that he realizes while working in a particular company. The same is proposed to be done to the manager: he must mark in the list compiled by him those items that satisfy him in the employee.

The main condition for such a comparison is the quantitative coincidence of items in both lists. Further, the method of comparative analysis determines the number of discrepancies in the list of an employee and an organization.

With this consideration, the results of the comparative analysis can be presented in the following forms:

• complete coincidence, which gives grounds to speak of the quality of the incentive system (the permissible discrepancy in either direction is 10 - 30%);

• partial coincidence, which gives grounds to consider the existing incentive system to be of insufficient quality (admissible discrepancy in any direction is 31 - 60%);

• complete mismatch, which means the fact that the labor incentive system is not of high quality, that is, it does not bring predictable results (the discrepancy in any direction is more than 61%).

Three forms of coincidences reflect the degree of equivalence of social exchange between all participants in labor interactions (complete, partial and inconsistency).

This approach is a quantitative comparison

For an even more accurate analysis, a qualitative comparison should be used, which consists in not only counting the number of coincidences or mismatches, but in ranking, that is, comparing the expectations and requirements of the employee and the organization in terms of significance. This approach allows the most accurate assessment of the level of quality of the incentive system, as it reflects the hierarchy of the systems of labor expectations, and therefore their level of significance and usefulness for personnel and for the organization.

Such a mechanism is universal in use for the reason that it identifies existing problems in stimulating labor, both for the organization and for the employee, and can be used in diagnosing the level of satisfaction with work, both of an individual, and of a unit and of the entire workforce. This provides an opportunity to develop and use various forms of managerial influence in order to balance the interests of both personnel and the organization, and also makes it possible to assess the degree of quality of the labor incentive system.

The choice of this or that form of managerial influence directly depends on the incentive system existing in the organization, the level of its elaboration, as well as on the motivational type of the employee. For cases of complete or partial coincidence, an option can be proposed to maintain the incentive system in the existing state, its timely diagnosis and modeling of the system in the identified problem areas and the search for ways to improve. A common technology in this case is motivational audit[196].

Motivational audit is an assessment of the effectiveness of the personnel motivation management system, the existing incentive program and an aggregate procedure for assessing the needs of personnel.

The objectives of the audit can be:

• determination of the compliance of the incentive system with the Labor Code of the Russian Federation;

• improvement of the personnel incentive system with a focus on the new goals of the organization;

• assessment of the compliance of the incentive system with the goals and objectives of the organization's development, etc.

The obtained results of the motivational audit can be used in various areas of personnel management.

1. To improve the existing or to develop a new system of incentives for personnel.

2. To improve individual elements of personnel management:

• improving the quality of selection and placement of personnel;

• staff training and professional development;

• development of plans for career development and determination of career orientations of personnel.

 In the case of a complete mismatch, a radical revision of the incentive system and the design of a new one is necessary.

Knowledge of the motives of activity gives grounds to apply certain methods of managerial influence on personnel in order to improve the quality of management of employees, and, consequently, of the organization.

Consequently, having identified the needs of personnel, it becomes possible to develop a labor incentive policy in accordance with the identified expectations and motives of activity. This makes it possible to manage the individual, focusing on his needs, providing opportunities for their satisfaction and implementation. Thus, the management of a person in an organization becomes more conscious and purposeful, and managerial influences are not spontaneous, but planned for the result.

Thus, the stimulation of labor is nothing more than a managerial impact on the employee. It is based on a number of provisions:

1. the result of labor stimulation is the appropriate labor behavior of personnel, which provides an opportunity to effectively use and accumulate labor potential;

2. the basis of the construction of the incentive system is the motivational structure of the employee's personality, the definition of which allows the goals and values ​​of the personnel and the organization to be coordinated, which makes it possible to talk about the reciprocity of the interests of the employee and the organization.

Managing a person in an organization should first of all take into account his motivational sphere, which means that it is necessary for each of the four types of motivational orientations to determine the factors and methods that guarantee the effectiveness of managing this person in the organization. Scientists have long asked the question: «How can the development of needs be influenced by management methods?»[197]

The mixed type of motivational orientations is characterized by an equal ratio between internal and external motives. Employees who belong to this motivational type have a pronounced understanding of the essence and content of their work. They consider it expedient for themselves to have such professional activities, in the process of which they will be able to receive both material and moral reward.

To manage people with mixed motivational orientations, it is recommended to use the methods of perspective (long-range) stimulation, since at the moment a person is already motivated in the right way. This requires strong psychological stimulation mechanisms. «The meaning of life is such a super-situational force that forms the orientation of the personality as a whole...». The very meaning of life «lies in the objective orientation and objective results of life»[198], and, consequently, in labor activity and its results, which gives reason to consider perspective stimulation as a means of forming such a life meaning. 

This approach to labor stimulation is based on two concepts: the concept of levels of motivation by V.M. Teplov and the concept of promising lines by A.S. Makarenko[199]. To build an operating system of labor incentives based on long-term motivation, it is necessary to take into account a number of features:

• the effectiveness of the impact on a person increases with an increase in the level of motivation from short to long. A person determines his attitude to activity on the basis of how far he is aware of its prospects and possible results for him;

• not all tasks and goals can become “distant” for a person, but only those that are competently stimulated and initiated, that is, they are based on certain prerequisites for activity and are differentiated depending on the psychological characteristics of a person (age, needs).

Currently, organizations are characterized by a one-sided focus on near motivation, which can no longer provide employees who want to work with high labor efficiency, full-fledged conditions for the realization of their labor potential. The methods of promising stimulation can be the creation of a special culture of relations between the personnel and the management of the organization, and a unique system of promotion and training of employees, that is, all those activities that will contribute to the actualization of needs and motives for a long period of time in a particular organization. A long-term perspective can contribute to the self-development of employees, their self-actualization in professional activities, which in turn will provide the organization with qualified personnel with a high degree of loyalty to the company.

The pragmatic type of motivational orientations is characterized by the predominance of external motives of professional activity. This means that people who are inherent in such motivational orientations, in their work activities are focused not on the content of work itself, the process of work, but on the benefits that they receive as a result of their activities. Externally motivated activity stops or its effectiveness is significantly reduced as soon as external reward, reinforcement disappears. Similarly motivated employees are usually good specialists, as they are able to find a new job and almost always with a higher salary than in the previous one. However, such employees are "expensive" for the organization, since in this case the organization's management is forced to focus on the use of material incentives (usually monetary) to increase the interest of the organization's employees in productive work. Such an approach is fraught with the fact that in a difficult period for the company, there may simply not be an employee who would be ready to work in it, even if wages are reduced, since employees of this type do not have a sense of pride in their organization.

In order to influence the formed motivation of employees, «strong psychological mechanisms of motivation are required inherent in each individual, for which specially organized incentives are needed»[200]. On the basis of these incentives, appropriate methods of management influence are developed. These methods should include the activation of achievement motivation. «Achievement motivation... can be defined as an attempt to increase or maintain as high a person's ability as possible for all activities to which success criteria can be applied and where the performance of such an activity can, therefore, lead to either success or failure»[201]. The use of such methods in stimulation will help to evoke a feeling of enthusiasm for work, and with a successful solution of the tasks set, satisfaction with work, and not with its material side, but with its content.

This approach conceptually proceeds from the theory of motivation by D. McClelland, who identified the three most important needs for achievement: the need for involvement, the need for power, the need for success. The activation of these motives of work activity is possible through the formulation of complex, but significant for the organization, tasks in front of employees and a rewarding reaction when performing[202]. At the same time, the main task of the company is to coordinate the motivation for the employee to achieve personal success and recognition with the motivation to achieve success and recognition of the goals and objectives of the company.

Another method of managing an employee with external motivational orientations is to activate the internal motives themselves by involving him in the corporate culture.

For the humanistic type of motivational orientations, the predominance of internal motives of activity is characteristic. High indicators of the value of self-development mean a person's desire to receive objective information about the characteristics of his character, abilities and other characteristics of his personality. This implies that the potential of the individual is almost unlimited and that, first of all, it is necessary to achieve their fullest realization.

«Information, knowledge and self-development are a systemically forming factor of a new social post-industrial reality, ....That affirms a person as a leading factor in the life of a production (economic) and social unit, forms a new paradigm of post-economic doing business». As a result, the management concept, previously focused only on reproduction, is also changing. Management is now focused on impact through a variety of socio-economic and moral incentives to encourage employees to work and develop with enthusiasm and dedication.

This type of worker is characterized by pride in their work, a sense of the social importance of the chosen profession. However, this does not mean at all that the motive of the importance of labor income is ignored by the employee: representatives of this group choose lower wages, but only if they have moral satisfaction with their work. As a rule, such motivation is rarely encountered in practice (in the study, the proportion of such workers is in third place), or it is typical for emerging (developing) organizations, where motivational influences are the basis of personnel policy. This approach assumes the actualization of the disinterested enthusiasm of workers, the formation of patriotism due to the lack of material resources in such organizations as a basis for incentives.

It should be emphasized that this approach fosters in the employee a sense of duty and attachment to the company only at the initial stage of his work. In the future, however, such incentives can lead to demotivation and reduce the activity of the staff, since «you always want to eat». To avoid a demotivating effect on personnel, it is recommended to use the motivation-reinforcement method as effective ways of managing this type of employee, that is, stimulating this type of employee with the help of those means that would keep the existing motivation at the same level or strengthen it.

For the organization, such employees are very valuable, since they are properly motivated by the work itself, love work, and the task of any organization is to «meet the expectations» of such employees and thereby achieve loyalty to the organization. This becomes possible thanks to the following incentive methods, which will ensure the effectiveness of personnel management with a predominance of internal motivational orientations:

• participation in the share capital (purchase of shares of the enterprise at preferential prices and receipt of dividends);

• stimulation by providing free time;

• social insurance programs;

• methods of psychological stimulation;

• granting a certain freedom in independent choice of decisions[203];

• providing an opportunity to broaden the horizons of their professional knowledge and skills.

These methods are not of a direct material nature, but indirectly prove to the employee his significance and value for the organization. In order to maintain and/or enhance internal motivation, it is not recommended to use direct methods of material incentives, since researchers have proven that money acts in a reducing way on internal motivation to work[204]. External reward will be effective only if external factors will affect the internal motivation of the individual to the extent that they will affect the sense of competence, provided that this activity is self-determined. Those factors that increase the sense of competence have a positive effect on intrinsic motivation, while those that reduce it have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation[205].

For employees with an indefinite type of motivational orientations, it is necessary to use the activation of goal-setting motives as measures of the control (stimulating) influence.

The most important and generalizing mechanism of goal-setting is the existence in a person of some life plan[206]life goal[207]project[208], general motto of the event[209]. The presence of this mechanism is associated with the ability and desire of a person to carry out self-projection into the future, not only as setting specific goals, but also as self-projection, that is, as an integral, and not partial, transfer of oneself into the future. The sphere of functioning of this orientation mechanism is the sphere of personal meanings, that is, those individualized meanings of a person's actions and motives, the objective, supra-individual (including sociocultural) foundations of which are not only deeply hidden, but also uniquely transformed, by virtue of which they can look as irrational or vague, elusive. As a result of the constant dominance of certain motives, a stable purposefulness of a person (internal position, personality orientation) spontaneously develops, the nature of which is predominantly emotional. As a result of constant internal work (mainly work on awareness), a certain life goal (leading motive) is formed, aimed at hierarchizing meaning-forming motives.

The impact of stimuli on an individual in order to develop and form his motives for goal-setting, i.e. those motives of activity that form a stable connection between the employee and the organization, contributes to an increase in interest in work and in the organization itself.

Depending on the individual characteristics of the individual, it is necessary to determine the list of alleged unmet needs of life of various levels that is relevant for the employee and stimulate, on this basis, a unique set of achievements and corresponding goals.

So, the process of building a labor incentive system consists in identifying, agreeing and observing the conditions (basic parameters) of the equivalence of social exchange.

An indicator of the quality of the incentive system is the degree of acceptability of the parameters of the equivalence of social exchange by all participants in labor interactions (complete, partial and inconsistency).

The guarantee of the equivalence of remuneration to work results is the key to the success of stimulating the labor activity of the employee and the formation of his manageability, since such an approach contributes to the formation of partnerships between the organization and the employee and the formation of trust, based on the confidence that the efforts spent will be rewarded. It's no secret that a person who trusts someone is easier and easier to manage. The same rule applies to organizational space. The very trust in the organization is formed in the process of stimulating labor based on guarantees of an equivalent (fair) exchange.

The experience of the best Western and domestic leaders shows that success is achieved by those who do not just set tasks for their subordinates and achieve their fulfillment by any means, but those who have the ability to interest, ignite, inspire staff, unite employees with a common idea, and form a team of like-minded people. This is also becoming a key issue in the incentive policy of the organization.

At the strategic level, there are three types of policies for managing staff motivation in their work[210]:

• The prevalence of the system of stimulating influences on the personnel of the organization. In this case, the organization focuses on the use of various incentives (usually monetary) to increase the interest of the organization's employees in productive work. This approach is fraught with many dangers for the leader. Indeed, in a difficult period for the company, there may simply not be an employee who would be ready to work in it, even if wages are reduced. After all, the employees did not develop either a sense of patriotism or a sense of pride in their organization.

• The prevalence of the system of motivational personnel management of the organization. This type of personnel policy assumes the actualization of the disinterested enthusiasm of employees, the formation of patriotism, etc. For example, this approach often prevails in emerging (emerging) organizations due to their lack of a material base as the basis for incentives. This approach fosters in the employee a sense of duty and attachment to the company only at the initial stage of his work. In the future, such incentives can lead to demotivation and reduce the activity of staff. This is its essential drawback.

• Harmonious combination of a complex of stimulating influences and motivational personnel management. This approach can be considered the most optimal, smoothing out the extremes of the first two approaches. As a rule, such a policy is implemented by organizations developed in all respects, in which a value corporate culture and a fair mechanism for the distribution of the organization's material benefits have already been formed.

It is to such a harmonious combination and, kind of, the principle of building incentive systems that a modern leader should strive for, because in the process of stimulating labor, the organization and the employee interact. And on what this interaction of the named parties will be and how it will be formed and built, the results and success of the activities of the entire organization as a whole depend, first of all.

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

In the monograph, on the basis of general methodological principles of cognition of social phenomena, first of all, the principles of consistency, historicity, on the basis of an analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature, materials of empirical sociological research, the mechanism of labor stimulation and its influence on the perception of workers of the labor process is studied.

In general, it has been established that it is the design of high-quality labor incentive systems based on the principles of differentiation, complexity and efficiency that ensures the motivation of workers for productive and high-quality work.

The work revealed that labor stimulation is a basic element of personnel management, since it is able to harmonize the individual goals and values ​​of personnel with the goals and values ​​of the organization, which is a powerful tool for using the labor potential of an employee.

Based on the analysis of sociological approaches and existing concepts, the content of the concept and the essence of the labor stimulation process has been systematized and deepened, and the purpose of stimulation has been determined as the achievement of harmonization of methods and forms of labor management with the main goals and directions of development of the personnel management system and the organization as a whole.

Labor incentives is an influence on the motivational structure of the employee's personality through directed managerial influence, in order to obtain a certain result, which in modern conditions becomes the employee's ability to accumulate and effectively use the existing labor potential in accordance with the goals and values ​​of the organization. The incentive system is a set of measures of managerial influence on personnel, aimed at agreeing and harmonizing the goals and directions of development of the personnel management system with the directions of development of the organization.

The monograph formulates indicators of the quality of incentive systems:

• the importance of organizational incentives;

• optimal ratio of organizational incentives of direct and indirect impact;

• optimal balance of organizational incentives of long and short term impact;

• unambiguous perception of organizational incentives;

• purposefulness of the influence of organizational incentives.

With the help of a systematic approach, it becomes possible to combine disparate management influences, which should be stimulating in nature, into a set of targeted, consistent measures, which will be the basis for building and designing a high-quality incentive system. A systematic approach will provide an opportunity to ensure a reasonable choice by management of effective forms of incentives, the correct determination of the degree, nature and speed of the impact of incentives on employees.

The main provisions of the concept of social exchange made it possible to single out the basic elements that determine the efficiency of labor activity and determine the possibility of creating an equivalent exchange. These include:

• the system of expectations of the employee in relation to the benefits received from the organization, based on ideas about the quality of life, the level of social relationships, on the one hand, and the system of expectations of the organization in relation to the performance and nature of the employee's work, on the other;

• a system of criteria for assessing the immediate result and the labor process by the employee and the organization;

• the motivational structure of the personality, which is formed on the basis of the psychophysiological characteristics of the employee, situational factors, which is realized at a particular moment in time.

The parameters for assessing the level of equivalence of social exchange between participants in labor relations are:

- the level of consistency of the elements of the system of expectations of the employee and the organization;

- the level of validity of the criteria for assessing the results of labor activity;

- the level of comparability of the characteristics of the motivational complex of personnel with the characteristics of the stimulating effect.

In the course of sociological research, the following correlations were identified and it was proved that:

• the system of labor expectations of the employee is determined by the system of motives;

• the type of employee behavior depends on the nature of the interaction of labor participants and their perception of the organization of the production process.

The revealed dependencies made it possible to construct a typology of personnel behavior in an organization and to determine that an indicator of the quality of the labor incentive system in an organization is the equivalence of social exchange between participants in labor relations.

At the same time, it was found that through managerial influences it is possible to adjust the motivational guidelines of employees, contributing to their high productivity and quality of work.

The provisions developed in the monograph can be used as a theoretical basis for the development of motivational programs for organizations, as well as in drawing up plans for the social development of enterprises and personnel programs.

REFERENCES

I. Laws and regulations.

  1. Constitution of the Russian Federation. - M., 1993.
  2. Basics of civil law. - M., 1992.
  3. Labor Code of the Russian Federation. Federal Law No. 197-FZ // Rossiyskaya Gazeta. - 2002. - January 21.

 

II. Scientific monographs, textbooks, teaching aids.

  1. Aliev V.G., Dokholyan S.V. Organizational behavior. - M.: Economics, 2004. - 367 p.
  2. Altunina I.R. Motives and motivation for social behavior. History and current state of research. Moscow: MPSI, 2006. - 144 p.
  3. Aristotle. Metaphysics // Works: In 4 volumes - Vol. 1. - M.: Mysl, 1976.
  4. Averin Yu.P., Slepenkov N.M. Foundations of the theory of social management. - M.: Progress, 1990. - 345 p.
  5. Babosov E.M. Sociology of Management: Textbook. manual for university students. - Minsk: Tetra-System, 2000. - 288 p.
  6. Batyshev S.Ya. Training of working professionals / S.Ya. Batyshev. - M.: APO, 1995. - 243 p.
  7.  Blake R., Mouton D. Scientific management methods. - Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1990. - 247 p.
  8.  Davydov A.V., Ovsyannikov A.S., Malozhin N.M. Motivation and remuneration in a market economy. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2005. - 213 p.
  9.  Davydov A.V., Ovsyannikov A.S., Malozhin N.M. Motivation and remuneration in a market economy. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2003. - 213 p.
  10.  Davydov Yu.N. Social action // Russian sociological encyclopedia. - M., 1998. - 314 p.
  11.  Deming E. Out of the crisis. - M.: Alpina Business Books, 2007. - 370 p.
  12.  Dikareva A.A., Mirskaya M.I. Sociology of Labor. - M.: Higher school, 1989. - 304 p.
  13.  Dobrenkov V.I., Kravchenko A.I. Fundamental Sociology. In 15 vols. - M.: Infra-M, 2005.
  14.  Durkheim E. Sociology. Its subject, method, purpose. M., Canon +, 2006. - 121 p.
  15.  Egorshin A.P. Motivation for work: a textbook. - N. Novgorod: NIMB, 2003. - 320 p.
  16.  Egorshin A.P. Personnel Management. - N. Novgorod: NIMB, 2003. - 498 p.
  17.  Elmeev V. Ya., Ovsyannikov V.G. Applied Sociology: Essays on Methodology. - 2nd ed., Rev. and add. - SPb.: Publishing house of St. Petersburg State University, 1999. - 285 p.
  18.  Falmer R.M. Encyclopedia of Modern Management. - Мщд. 1. - M.: Finance and statistics, 1992. - 488 p.
  19.  Follet M.P. Giving orders. In the book: Classics of the theory of public administration: American school / Ed. J. Shafritz, A. Hyde. - M.: Publishing house of Moscow State University, 2003.
  20.  Frolov S.S. Fundamentals of Sociology: Textbook. - M.: Jurist, 1997. - 344 p.
  21.  Frolov S.S. Sociology of Organizations: Textbook. - M.: Gardarika, 2001. - 304 p.
  22.  Gelikh O. Ya. Governance and Violence: A Socio-Philosophical Analysis. - SPb.: Knizhny Dom, 2004. - 384 p.
  23.  Genkin B.M. Economics and Sociology of Labor. - M.: Norma, 2003. - 416 p.
  24.  Gerchikov V.I. Personnel management: An employee is the most effective resource of the company: A textbook for universities. - M.: Infra-M, 2008. - 282 p.
  25.  Grazhdan V.D. Activity control theory. M.: RAGS, 1997. - 179 p.
  26.  Gromova L.A., Trapitsyn S.Yu., Timchenko V.V. The quality of education in the context of the UNESCO Education for All program: Russian edition: Recommendations on the results of scientific research / Ed. G.A. Bordovsky. - SPb.: Publishing house of the Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University, 2006. - 72 p.
  27.  Groshev I.The. Organizational culture. - M.: Unity-Dana, 2004. - 288 p.
  28.  Habermas J. Relations between the system and the life world in the conditions of late capitalism // Theory and history of economic and social institutions and systems. Structures and institutions. - 1993. - Vol. 1. - Issue 2.
  29.  Heckhausen H. Motivation and activity. - SPb.: Peter; M.: Smysl, 2003. - 860 p.
  30.  Ilyin E.P. Motivation and motives. - SPb.: Peter, 2003. - 512 p.
  31.  Income policy and quality of life of the population / Edited by N.А. Gorelova. - SPb.: Peter, 2006. - 653 p.
  32.  Ivanova S.V. 100% motivation: Where is the button? - M.: Omega-L. - 2005. - 216 p.
  33.  Kagan M.S. Human activity. Experience in systems analysis. Moscow: Politizdat, 1974. - 328 p.
  34.  Kalinichenko L.A. Social organization of the civil service. - M.: RAGS, 2000. - 244 p.
  35.  Kapitonov E.A., Kapitonov A.E. Corporate culture and PR. - M.: IKTs Mart, 2003. - 416 p.
  36.  Khokhlov A.A. Personnel processes in the system of state power (sociological analysis): Abstract of dis. ... Dr. Sociol. sciences. - M.: RAGS, 2000. - 48 p.
  37.  Kobiel K. Motivation in the style of ACTION. Delight is infectious: Trans. from Ger. - M.: Alpina Business Books, 2003. - 189 p.
  38.  Kogan L.N. The purpose and meaning of human life. M., 1984.
  39.  Kokurina I.G. Methods for studying labor motivation. - M.: Academy, 2005. - 224 p.
  40.  ​​Kravchenko A.I., Tyurina I.O. Sociology of Management: A Fundamental Course: A Textbook for Students of Higher Educational Institutions. - M.: Academic Project, 2004. - 1136 p.
  41.  Kunz G., O'Donnell S. Management: systemic and situational analysis of management functions. - M.: Progress, 1981. - 495 p.
  42.  Kupriyanov E.A., Shmelev A.G. Psychodiagnostics of labor motives by methods of survey and scaling. - M.: Psychology. - 2006. - 413 p.
  43.  Kuznetsov A. L. The strategy of social development of the collective of the enterprise in the transformational economy: Dis ... Doctor of Economic sciences. –Yekaterinburg, 1999.
  44.  Kuznetsov A.L., Zakharov N.L. Management of the social development of the organization. - M.: Infra-M, 2006. - 263 p.
  45.  L.S. Shakhovskaya. Labor motivation in a transitional economy / Scientific. ed. S.A. Lenskaya. - Volgograd: Change, 1995. - 320 p.
  46.  Labor Economics / Ed. M.A. Vinokurova, N.A. Gorelova. - SPb.: Peter, 2004. - 229 p.
  47.  Lapygin Yu.N. Eidelman Ya.L. Motivation for economic activity in the context of the Russian reform. M., 1996.
  48.  Leontiev A.N. Selected psychological works. In 2 volumes - M.: Pedagogy, 1983.
  49.  Lomov B.F. Methodical and theoretical problems of psychology. - M., 1984. - 532 p.
  50.  Management is science and art // Fayol A., Emerson G., Taylor F., Ford G. Collection. - M.: Republic, 1992. - 349 p.
  51.  Mansurov V.A. Social dynamics and transformation of professional groups in modern society. M.: IS RAN, 2007. - 288 p.
  52.  Maslow A. Motivation and personality. - SPb.: Eurasia, 1999. - 448 p.
  53.  Mescon M.H., Albert M., Hedouri F. Fundamentals of management. - M.: Delo, 1992. - 701 p.
  54.  Modern philosophical dictionary / Ed. by  V.E. Kemerova. - M.: Bishkek; Yekaterinburg: Odyssey, 1996. - 608 p.
  55.  Moreno. J.L. Sociometry. Experimental method in the science of society / Trans. from English - M.: Academic project, 2004. - 320 p.
  56.  Mukhambetov T.I. Motivational mechanism of labor management. - Alma-Ata: Gylym, 1991. - 125 p.
  57.  Naumova N.F. Sociological and psychological aspects of purposeful behavior. - M.: Nauka, 1988. - 200 p.
  58.  Nikitin E.P. Explanation is a function of science. - Moscow: Nauka, 1970.
  59.  Odegov Yu.G., Zhuravlev P.V. Personnel management: Textbook for universities. - M.: Finstatinform, 1997. - 122 p.
  60.  Organizational behavior: Textbook for universities / Ed. G.R. Latfullina, O. N. Thunderous. - SPb.: Peter, 2006. - 432 p.
  61.  Parsons T. On social systems. M.: Academ. Project, 2002. - 832 p.
  62.  Patrushev VD, Labor and leisure of workers (Time budget, values ​​and motives). Moscow: ISRAN, 2006. - 164 p.
  63.  Personnel management of the organization: Textbook / Edited by A.Ya. Kibanov. - M.: INFRA-M, 2004. - 638 p.
  64.  Polovinko V.S. Personnel management: a systematic approach and its implementation / Edited by Yu.G. Odegova. - M.: Inform-Knowledge, 2002. - 484 p.
  65.  Popov A.V. Theory and organization of American management. - M.: Moscow State University, 1991. - 147 p.
  66.  Prigogine A.I. Contemporary sociology of organizations. - M.: Interpraks, 1995. - 296 p.
  67.  Pryazhnikov NS Labor motivation: textbook. A guide for students. Higher. study. Institutions / N.S. Pryazhnikov. - M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2008. - 368 p.
  68.  Quality management: Textbook for universities / S.D. Ilyenkova, N. D. Ilyenkov, V.S. Mkhitaryan and others / Ed. S. D. Ilyenkova. 2nd ed., Rev. and add. - M.: UNITI-DANA, 2004. - 334 p.
  69.  Richie S., Martin P. Motivation management. - M.: Alfa-Press. - 2004. - 535 p.
  70.  Rogers E., Agarwala-Rogers E. Communication in organizations. - M.: Economics, 1980. - 176 p.
  71.  Romashov V.S. Sociology of Labor: Textbook. - M.: Gardarika, 1999. - 320 p.
  72.  Rubinstein S.L. Problems of general psychology. M.: Pedagogika, 1973.
  73.  Serbinovskiy B.Yu., Samygina S.M. Personnel Management: Textbook. - M.: Prior, 1999. - 567 p.
  74.  Sergeev A.M. Organizational behavior: Those who have chosen the managerial profession. - M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2005. - 387s.
  75.  Simakov A.G. Labor in Russia of the XX century / A.G. Simakov. - M.: Publishing house MGSU "Soyuz", 1997. - 230 p.
  76.  Skopylatov I.A., Efremov O.Yu., Masharov I.M. Management and diagnostics of personnel: Textbook. - SPb.: Knowledge, 2002. - 356 p.
  77.  Social management: A course of lectures / Ed. Collegium V.S. Karpichev, Yu.V. Kolesnikov, V.L. Romanov. - M.: RAGS. 2000. - 438 p.
  78.  Sociology of labor. Theoretical and applied dictionary / Ed. by V.A. Yadov. - SPb.: Nauka, 2006. - 426 p.
  79.  Sokolov V.M. Sociology of moral development of personality. - M: Politizdat, 1986. - 240 p.
  80.  Solomandina T.O. Personnel motivation management: textbook. - M.: Publishing house Ros. econom. acad., 1995. - 436 p.
  81.  Sorokin P.A. Person. Civilization. Society. - M.: Politizdat, 1992. - 543 p.
  82.  Spinoza B. Ethics // Spinoza B. Selected works: In 2 volumes - M., 1957. - Vol. 1.
  83.  Spivak V.A. Management. - SPb.: Vector, 2005. - 256 p.
  84.  Taylor W.F. Principles of Scientific Management // Controlling. - M.: Publishing house of standards, 1991. - 104 p.
  85.  Tikhonov A.V. Sociology of management. M., Canon +, 2007. - 472 p.
  86.  Toshchenko Zh.T. A paradoxical person. 2nd ed. M.: Unity-Dana, 2008. - 543 p.
  87.  Travin V.V., Dyatlov V.A. Enterprise personnel management. M.: Delo, 1998. - 272 p.
  88.  Travin V.V., Magura M.I., Kurbatova M.B. Motivational management. - M.: Delo, 2007. - 391 p.
  89.  Utkin E.A. Motivational management. - M.: Teis, 2004. - 236 p.
  90.  Vesnin V.R. Management. - M.: Prospect, 2007. - 512 p.
  91.  Vilyunas V. Psychology of the development of motivation. - SPb.: Rech, 2006. - 458 p.
  92.  Volgin N.A., Volgina O.N. Labor remuneration: Japanese experience and Russian practice. - M.: Publishing and trade corporation «Dashkov and K», 2004. - 508 p.
  93.  Volkovitckaia G.A. Human resource management in the face of change: Study guide. - SPb.: Express, 2009. - 72 p.
  94.  Vorozheikin I.E. Management of the social development of the organization. - M.: INFRA-M, 2001. - 176 p.
  95.  Weber M. Basic sociological concepts. // Weber M. Selected Works. - M.: Progress, 1990. - 800 p.
  96.  Weber M. Selected Works. - M.: Progress, 1990. - 808 p.
  97.  Working book of a sociologist. / Ed. by G.V. Osipova. - M.: Editorial URSS, 2003. - 480 p.
  98. Yadov V.A. Formation of labor relations in post-Soviet Russia. (Sociological analysis of five cases of Russian management in comparison with the practice of Canada and Germany) M., IS RAS, Academ. Project, 2004. - 320 p.
  99.  Yadov V.A. Sociological research strategy. - M.: Dobrosvet, University Book House, 1998. - 596 p.
  100.  Zaitsev G.G. Personnel Management: Textbook. -SPb: Publishing house «North-West», 1998. - 146 p.
  101.  Zamfir K. Job satisfaction: the opinion of a sociologist. / Trans. from Romanian. - M.: Politizdat, 1983. - 142 p.
  102.  Zaslavskaya T.I. Contemporary Russian Society: Social Mechanism of Transformation. Tutorial. M.: Delo, 2004. - 400 p.
  103.  Zdravomyslov A. G., Yadov V. A. Man and his work in the USSR and after: a textbook for universities. - M.: Aspect Press, 2003. - 485 p.

 

III. Publications in scientific periodicals and scientific proceedings.

  1.  Akhpolova V.B. motivation and its influence on the level and quality of life of the population // Living standards of the population and regions of Russia. - 2002. - No. 3. - P. 44-49.
  2.  Azgaldov G.G. General information about the methodology of qualimetry. // Standards and quality. - 1994.- No. 11. - P. 24.
  3. Bransky V.P. Theoretical foundations of social synergetics // Problems of Philosophy. - 2000. - No. 4. - P. 112-129.
  4.  Goryachev S. System of labor motivation: principles of construction // Entrepreneurship. - 2005. - No. 2. - P. 40-53.
  5. Guseinov A.A. The concepts of violence and non-violence // Questions of philosophy. 1994. - No. 6. - P. 34-41.
  6. Ivannikov V.A. Analysis of the need-motivational sphere from the standpoint of the theory of activity // Questions of psychology. - M., 2003. - No. 2. - P. 139-145.
  7.  Kardashov V. Personnel motivation: theory and practice // Man and labor. - 2002. - No. 10. - P. 78-83.
  8. Katulsky E. «Motivation in the labor market» // Economic Issues. - 1997. - No. 2. - P. 92-101.
  9. Komarov E.I. Stimulation and motivation in modern personnel management // Personnel management.- 2002.- №1. - P. 38-41.
  10. Kovalev A.M. The Asian way of production and the peculiarities of the development of Russia // Vestnik Mosk. un-that. / Series No. 12. Socio-political research. - 1993. - No. 1. - P. 46-56.
  11. Lawton A., Rose E. Development of human resources // Public service: issues of improving work with personnel. Overseas experience. - M., 1995. - P. 71-83.
  12. Leontiev V.G. Motivation, personality activity // Motivation, personality activity. - Part 1. - Novosibirsk, 2002. - P. 3-16.
  13. Lovcheva M.V. Regulation of the mechanism of labor motivation of an employee of the organization // Bulletin of the University. Series: Sociology and Personnel Management. - M., 2002. - No. 2. - P. 131-134.
  14. Luhmann N. Why is «systems theory» necessary? // Problems of theoretical sociology. - SPb, 1994. - P. 31-51.
  15. Makarova L.I. Creation of an effective mechanism for motivating workers as a condition for overcoming the alienation of labor // Bulletin of the Chelyabinsk University. Economics, sociology, social work. - Chelyabinsk, 2002. - No. 2. - P. 120-123.
  16. Manakova O.V. Motivation in the creative process // V All-Russian Interuniversity Conference. - Tomsk, 2003. - P. 46-49.
  17. Merton R. Social structure and anomie // Sociological research. - 1992. - No. 3. - P. 91-96.
  18. Naumova S.A. Typology of workers: management issues // Sociological studies. - 1991. - No. 2. - P. 60-65.
  19. Ponedelkov A.V., Tsvetkova G.A., Chernous V.V. Power and control // Sociological studies. - 1998. - No. 3. - P. 137-139.
  20.  Pugachev V.P. Micropolitics in the motivation of labor resources in modern Russia // Vest. Moscow un-that. - Ser. 18. Sociology and Political Science. - M., 2002. - No. 1. - P. 129-144.
  21. Radaev V. V. What does economic sociology study // Russian economic journal. - 1994. P. 49-55.
  22. Ryumina T.V. The problem of motivation in psychological research // Motivation, personality activity. - Novosibirsk, 2002. - Part 1. - P. 63-71.
  23. Sinitsyna E.V. Motivational development and the formation of an individual style of activity // United. scientific. magazine. - M., 2002. - No. 27 (50). - P. 14-19.
  24. Sokhan L. V. Facets of personality // E.A. Yakuba (research and memories). - Kharkov, 2004. - P. 256-259.
  25. Tikhomirova G.I. Motivation and motives: psychological essence and features // Scientific notes of NGAEiU. Novosibirsk, 2003. - Issue 4. - P. 19-21.
  26. Tsvetkova R. Reality as a component of the power of motivation for effective activity // Applied psychology and psychoanalysis. - M., 2003. - No. 4. - P. 46-50.
  27. Volkovitckaia G.A. Labor incentives: quality criteria. // Bulletin of the Herzen Russian State Pedagogical University. # 8 (27): Postgraduate notebooks: Scientific journal. - SPb., 2007. - 29-38.
  28.  Volkovitckaia G.A. Management and stimulation of labor. // Management of the XXI century: education and business: Sat. scientific articles (Materials of the VII International Scientific and Practical Conference), St. Petersburg, November 29-30, 2007 - St. Petersburg: LLC «Book House», 2007. - pp. 122-124.
  29.  Volkovitckaia G.A. Stimulation of labor as a method of enhancing labor potential. // Management of the XXI century: strategies, technologies, human resources: Col. scientific articles (Materials of the IX International scientific-practical conference), St. Petersburg, November 25-26, 2009 St. Petersburg: LLC «Book House», 2009. - P. 55-56.
  30. Volkovitckaia G.A. The interaction of family and school in the process of socialization of children. // World of childhood: metaphysics of the cultural and civilizational crisis: Proceedings of the XIII International conference «Child in the modern world. Childhood: social anxieties and dangers». SPb.: Asterion 2006. - P. 404-407.
  31.  Volkovitckaia G.A. The value of labor incentives for the quality of management of the organization. // Quality of management: interdisciplinary analysis: Proceedings of an interdisciplinary methodological seminar on management. Issue 9 / Ed. L.T. Volchkova, O. Ya. Gelikha. - SPb.: Publishing house of St. Petersburg. University, 2008. - P. 227-231.
  32. Yadov V. Russia as a transforming society // Society and economy. - 1999. - No. 10, 11. - P. 65-72.
  33. Zakharov N.L. «The Riddle of the Russian Soul», or Peculiarities of Labor Motivation of Russian Personnel // Personnel Management. - M., 2004. - No. 22-23.
  34. Zakharov N.L. Theft and benefits in the structure of labor behavior // Sociological research. - 2001. - No. 6. - P. 67-72.

IVForeign authors

  1. Abraham C. Sheearn P. Acting on intentions. The role of anticipated regret // Brit. j. of social psychology. – Leicester, 2003. – Vol. 42. Pt 4.
  2. Alderfer C.P. Existence, Relatedness and Growth: Human Needs in Organizational Settings. – N.Y., 1972.
  3. Blau P.M. Exchange and power in social life. N. Y., 1964.
  4. Deci E.L., Ryan R.M. Self-determination and intrinsic motivation in human behavior. –1985. – P. 63.
  5.  Eden D. Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and motives: Replication and extension with Kibbutz workers // J. Applied Soc. Psychol. 1975. – V. 5. – P. 348-373.
  6. Gerson E. On «quality of life» // Ibid. 1976. – Vol. 41.  № 5. – P. 793-806.
  7. Gouldener A. The coming crisis of western sociology. N.Y.: Basic Books, 1970. – P. 231-241. 
  8. Homans G. Social behavior: its elementary forms. N.Y.: Harcourt, Brace, 1961.
  9. Lawler E.E. Motivation in work organizations. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1973.
  10. Mayo E. The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization. – L. 1949
  11. Michener H., Cohen E., Sorensen A. Social exchange: predicting transactional outcomes in five-event, four-person systems // Amer. Sociol. Rev. 1977. – Vol. 42.  № 3. – P. 534-542.
  12. McClelland D.C. Power: The Inner Experience. – N.J., 1975.
  13. McGregor D. The human Side of Enterprise. . - N.Y., 1960.
  14.  Fitz Patrick W. Reasons, value, and particular agents: Normative relevance without motivational externalism // Mind. – Oxford, 2004. – Vol. 113. – № 450. P. 285-318. – Bibliog.: P. 316-318.
  15. Skinner B.F. The technology of teaching. – N.Y., 1968.
  16.  Slamon M.N. Causal explanations of behavior // Philosophy of science. – Bloomington (IN), 2003. – Vol.70. – № 4. – P. 720-738.
  17. Schein E. Organizational psychology. N. Y.: Wiley, 1965.
  18.  Schoenherr R., Greeley A. Role commitment processes and the American catholic priesthood // Amer. Sociol. Rev. 1974. – Vol. 39.  № 3. – P. 407-426. 
  19. Vroom V.H. Motivation in Management. - N.Y., 1965.

 

APPLICATIONS

 

Application 1

 

Research «Motivation of the professional activity of employees of the organization»

 

1. Formulation of the problem, object and subject of research.

Formulation of the problem.

The development of modern society, new conditions of economic relations now pose new problems for sociology and economics. One of these problems is the determination of the motives for work among employees of organizations. The problem is as follows: different labor productivity at enterprises of the same forms of ownership and sectoral orientation is becoming a widespread phenomenon, and hence the question arises: what motives are fundamental for workers in the process of their labor activity.

The object of the research is the employees of organizations.

The subject of the research is a complex of motives of professional activity of employees of these organizations, orienting their behavior and influencing the perception of the labor process and the organization as a whole.

2. Purpose and main tasks of the research.

The purpose of the research was to identify the dominant motives of workers' labor activity, orienting their behavior and influencing the perception of the labor process.

Main tasks:

1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the complex of personnel motives.

2. Building a hierarchy of motives among employees of the studied organizations.

3. Revealing the patterns of building a hierarchy of workers' motives.

4. Typologization of groups of workers on the basis of the presence of the same hierarchy of motives.

The object of the general population is the employed population in the economy.

The object of the sample is the work collectives of organizations that have similar characteristics in terms of ownership, number and structure of personnel.

3. Research method

 3.1. General characteristics

(Description of the test itself, its key points and preliminary interpretations)

The proposed version of the questionnaire for determining the motives of labor activity is designed to help the researcher both in individual diagnostics and counseling, and in the study of various groups (labor and educational teams) on the problems of motivation. The technique arose as a result of the use and further improvement of K. Zamfir's technique modified by A. Rean[211].

3.2. Description of the procedure for collecting primary information

In the course of the survey, the respondent is asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of 42 statements, each of which had to be assessed on a five-point scale, in accordance with the degree of significance of the proposed alternative answers.

Before testing, the subject was presented with instructions.

3.3. Description of the methodology, interpretation tools and the procedure for processing the results obtained

The main diagnostic construct is the motives of labor activity. The term «motive» is understood as an internal motivation of a person to activity.

The proposed motives belong to multidirectional groups: internal and external. 

Legend: internal motives (mechanism of internal reward) are designated as the 1st group, they include:

• satisfaction from the process itself and the result of the work;

• the possibility of the most complete self-realization in this particular activity;

• a sense of the social significance of the chosen profession;

• dream of working in a certain specialty;

• conviction in the importance of the chosen type of activity, etc.

External motives (the mechanism of external reward) are designated as the second group, they include:

• cash earnings;

• the need to achieve social prestige and respect from others;

• obtaining the desired life status;

• the ability to buy prestigious items;

• convenient working hours and comfortable working conditions, etc.

 

 

 

 

Application 2

Questionnaire

Motivation of professional activity

Qualification

FULL NAME _____________________________________Sex____ Age ____ Date _________ 20___г.

Name of company ____________________________________

Position held ________________________________________

 

 

Rules for filling out the questionnaire

We ask you to rate your desires and aspirations that motivate you to work on a 5-point scale, pronouncing the phrase:

«It matters to me...»

 

– if the statement is IMPORTANT, put the number «5».

– if the statement is SOON IMPORTANT, put the number «4»;

– if the statement DOES MATTER, put the number «3»;

– if the statement is NOT VERY IMPORTANT, put the number «2»;

– if the statement is UNCONDITIONALLY IMPORTANT, put the number «1» on the form.

We ask you to remember that there can be no right or wrong answers here and that the most correct answer will be a truthful one. Try not to use the number «3» to evaluate a statement.

 

Statements

 

1. Do what you love.

2. Have an interesting job that completely absorbs me.

3. Get pleasure not only from the results of work, but also from the process itself.

4. Self-realization in professional activity.

5. Have a sufficient number of opportunities to realize their professional skills and qualities.

6. Study, enjoying it, strive to expand your professional knowledge.

7. Realize that my work makes the world a better place.

8. Use your knowledge and skills for the benefit of others.

9. Know that my work is socially important.

10. Communicate with different people, participate in social activities.

11. Use the ability to communicate for the benefit of people, to serve an important goal.

12. Be able to meet different interesting people at work.

13. Devote your whole life to your chosen profession.

14. To know that I am doing what I have always dreamed of doing.

15. Love your job.

16. Know that in this profession I can do more for other people than in any other.

17. Know that my work benefits people.

18. Finding inner satisfaction in doing well.

19. In your work, quickly achieve your goals.

20. Work on complex tasks and problems.

21. Always have clear performance goals and work to achieve them.

22. Have a well-paid job.

23. Know that I earn no less than my friends and acquaintances.

24. Have a guaranteed salary.

25. Monitor and control people.

26. Have the opportunity to advance in my chosen specialty (profession).

27. Take a high leadership position.

28. To take a place in society that would prove my high personal status.

29. So that my work is on a level and even better than others.

30. So that I would not be ashamed to name my place of work and position.

31. So that my work gives me the opportunity to receive additional material benefits (fees, benefits, vouchers).

32. Work in an organization that will provide me with stability for a long period of time.

33. Be able to contact the management of the company for help.

34. Have your own beliefs and the ability to defend them.

35. To take a place in society that would strengthen my financial position.

36. That the level of my education corresponds to the level of education of the person whose opinion I value.

37. Know that I can afford to buy expensive things (fur coat, diamonds).

38. Opportunity to go on vacation to prestigious resorts, visit museums, concerts, theaters.

39. To know that I am dressed no worse and even better than the people around me.

40. Work was close to my home and I didn’t spend a lot of time traveling.

41. Lead a lifestyle that balances the interests of my career and my family.

42. Work that you do not need to think about outside of working hours.

 

Application 3

Answer form

Questionnaire

Motivation of professional activity

Qualification

FULL NAME _____________________________________Sex____ Age ____ Date _________ 20___г.

Name of company ____________________________________

Position held ________________________________________

 

№ of

stat-t

Points

 

№ of

stat-t