A specific feature of modern education can be considered as the need to build an individual educational route in conditions of increasing intensity and density of information flow and a lack of time. Teaching students to consciously and effectively manage the process of self-education, professional and personal growth, the formation of a value attitude to the category of time is proposed to be carried out within the framework of the "Time Management" course in universities of various profiles . In connection with the implement of the distance education format, people are paying more and more attention to the rational use of their time. One of the different ways of its distribution is time-management – it is not just "physical time-management", but first of all it is the organization and self-organization of a person or a group of people so that in the time, allotted for work or study, the assigned tasks would not only be completed, but also satisfaction with the work performed would be achieved so that there were no subjective obstacles, barriers for work continuation . One of the main distinguishing features of students' time-management (especially while studying online) is a conscious assessment of their work while performing any activity . Time-management can be a significant criterion for assessing the degree of this awareness in a virtual learning format. It should also be noted that disability of managing your time could lead to psychological and emotional overload and burnouts, a low level of quality of life . Time-management should not be associated with such an attitude as to working twenty-four hours a day and not getting tired: it is created for rest to be envisaged correctly into our day so that people have time to restore their powers enough and increase their concentration during working hours. Self-management, as an essential part of time-management, can improve great qualities and human’s features: clear, realistic definition of goals, precise creation of a picture of success in your mind (including your material situation, surroundings and other moments), using the «big jump» technique, which implies a quick transition to specific actions, unconditional belief in one's own strength and success, focusing on the main goals and screening of secondary ones, ability to behave in the hands and start again in the event of an unsuccessful experience .
Purpose: to find out whether time-management is effective for organizing the time of students in a distance learning format in universities, to assess the degree of self-organization among students, and also to find out whether time-management affects an increase in the level of anxiety (taking into account the increase in computer workload, which is determined by online education).
Materials and methods of research: a survey included students at universities in Volgograd and Moscow was carried out, during which it was proposed to answer questions regarding the use of time-management among students according to the emergence of a distance education format. The survey was conducted using Google Forms.
The object of the research was students of 1–6 courses of universities in Volgograd and Moscow. The survey involved 122 people.
Results: the survey involved several age categories: less than 18 years old –11.5%, 18–20–47.5%, 21–23–32.8% and 24 years and more – 8,2%. It is important to note that at the time the survey was done, respondents had already faced an enforced application of distance learning due to the covid-19 pandemic. Analysis of the responses received showed the following results: despite the fact that most people know what time-management is (86.1% against 13.9% of those who do not know) are confident in its efficiency (88.5% against 11.5% of those who doubt) and 55.7 % of them have a personal schedule, more than half of the respondents (50.8%) do not apply any time-management techniques in a distance learning environment.
At the same time, 30.3% of respondents indicated that they use special timers for study (Forest, Pomodoro), 53.3% do not use it, and 16.4% do not know what it is at all.
According to the survey, almost half of the students (47.5%) reported that they manage to complete more tasks in the hybrid form of education, 38.5% in the fully distance learning format, and only 8.2% preferred the full-time option. Also noted were the comments of some respondents that “the format does not matter, since everything depends on the volume of homework and your own desire” and that “it turns out about the same, because with online learning the number of tasks is increased, and with offline learning a lot of time is constantly spent on the road and getting to the university”.
46.7% of the respondents note that study time-management helps them to reduce the level of stress and anxiety, 18.9%, that it, on the contrary, increases it, and for 34.4% it has no effect.
Also, students were given the opportunity to share their advice and observations, if they have any, allowing them to perform tasks more efficiently. The following answers were offered by the respondents:
• listening and watching lectures at an increased speed. The most common variant of the accelerated format is 2x.
• repetition of the material before going to bed or early in the morning.
• drawing up mental maps.
• reading and repeating material out loud.
• drawing up diagrams, associations and tables, pictures.
• listening to material on the way.
• keeping short notes and making them beautiful.
• retelling of the material.
• silent mode phone.
Among the various time-management techniques , one the most popular is Bullet journal (to-do list maintenance; Instead of blank, lined pages, a bullet journal (or BuJo, for short) contains sections to log daily to-dos, keep a monthly or weekly calendar, jot down notes, track both physiological and mental health, plus record both short- and long-term goals.) - 41.8%, then ABC analysis - performing tasks according to priorities. In materials management, ABC analysis is an inventory categorization technique. ABC analysis divides an inventory into three categories—"A items" with very tight control and accurate records, "B items" with less tightly controlled and good records, and "C items" with the simplest controls possible and minimal records. - 32%, and then within 5-7% there are such techniques as the Eisenhower matrix (The Four Quadrants. Also referred to as the Urgent-Important Matrix, this visual method of time management splits tasks into four quadrants to help prioritize the order of completion. Boxes are labelled one to four, each with a specific action point: do, decide, delegate or delete), the Pareto method (is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line. The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors) , and the "Timekeeping" technique (getting to work early and approaching the work you have to do in good time allows you to plan out what you need to do; You can make a list and prioritize the most important elements of your working days).
Conclusions: the analysis of the results obtained indicates a good awareness of students about time-management and its potential benefits, however, considering modern realities, a much low number of respondents apply it in practice, although the often-enforced application of distance learning encouraged university students to reconsider their approach to learning. However, for many people time-management has no influence on stress resistance, and, in all likelihood, some other factors can change the level of anxiety. For a larger number of students, the transition to partial distance learning is optimal in order to maintain maximum efficiency. Consequently, education at a university using distance technologies for most students does not entail dramatic changes in the organization of their time, although adaptation to such a mode of study occurred in any case.