Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The article presents the role of club activity in the formation of personal qualities of Orenburg teenagers in the 1930s-1950s. The general state of the club activity of Orenburg region teenagers in the period under review is analyzed and its directions are revealed; the types of club institutions characteristic of Orenburg region are determined; the qualities of a teenager's personality demanded by historical time are substantiated.

Ключевые слова:
club activity of teenagers, Orenburg region, types of club institutions, personal qualities of teenagers
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Extracurricular work in the 1930s-1950s of the Orenburg region was determined in accordance with the main directions of the development of the political course, as well as socio-economic factors. At the heart of the entire educational system was the communist ideology, orienting the efforts of teachers to subordinate the interests of the individual to the interests of the collective. These circumstances contributed to a decrease in the possibility of manifestation of subjectivity of a teenager.

Club activity allowed teenagers to independently plan and implement projects of social and personal transformation [1]. At the same time, there was a development of personal qualities of adolescents associated with independent decision-making. The origins of such a situation of self-determination of teenagers were laid already in the first years of Soviet power, and not only in Moscow, but also in Orenburg.

Analysis of archival materials showed that the predecessors of children's clubs in Orenburg region were playgrounds created by the Orenburg City Council in 1916-1917. The locations of these sites were the Field of Mars, the Nikolaevskaya site, the Poplar Garden.

In educational work, great importance was attached to the staging of amateur performances, in which teenagers developed such qualities as initiative, responsibility and artistry. In the study of Z.G. Safonova[2], the names of the performances are given – these are "Laundry in the nursery", "Turnip", "Mushrooms", "Brave Hare", "Goats and a Wolf", "Forest Princess" and many others.

An analysis of the literature [3] on the studied problem allowed us to establish that an important factor that determined the origin and development of club activities of teenagers in Orenburg region was the Resolution of the People's Commissariat of Education of 1919 ("On the organization of extracurricular education in the RSFSR").

Extracurricular institutions were given a key task - to promote the intellectual, physical and aesthetic development of adolescents.

It should be noted that on September 26, 1919, an organized meeting of children of workers of Orenburg was held at the Karl Marx Club (F.E. Dzerzhinsky Club). The speakers called on teenagers to join a children's club-theater and thereby join the construction of socialism. The appeal found a wide response. Soon clubs were created in the club: literary, choral, dramatic, sports. The first leaders of the club-theater were Viktor and Yakov Rozin [4, 5, 6].

Theater clubs participated in almost all political and economic campaigns. Half of the events were held in order to provide children with everything they need, primarily food. In January 1920, when the next "Week of Breadcrumbs" was held in favor of the starving of Moscow and Petrograd, the activists of the theater clubs alone collected 35 pounds of flour, 10 pounds of breadcrumbs, 3 pounds of millet. From April 11 to April 18, 1920, the City Committee of the RCP (b) and the RKSM, together with members of the children's proletarian club-theater, held a "week of proletarian children". Its main direction is the fight against homelessness. It is appropriate to mention that for the same purpose, a little later in Buguruslan, a special children's militia was created by the City Committee of the RKSM. During the "week" in Orenburg, 49 performances were given by the participants of the WPK-T, 11 rallies were held. At the same time, about 600 children joined the organization.

Thus, already in the first years of Soviet power, the club movement was widely developed in Orenburg region. Great importance in its organization was given to the creative activity of adolescents, the development of their personal qualities such as initiative, independence, striving for creativity, responsibility, initiative, and other defining qualities of the spiritual and moral sphere of personality development. The educational reforms of the 1930s led to a rigid organization and standardization of the system at all levels, which contributed to the complete absence of alternatives, namely, the right to choose students. A significant part of the Russian population remained illiterate. Another characteristic feature of the education system of the 30s was the active introduction of the cult of Stalin's personality into the minds of students. This led to stricter discipline, strict centralization of education management.

At the first stage of the development of the club activity of Orenburg teenagers, the number of clubs was insufficient. The underfunding of this area by the state was noted. In the preserved archival materials [6] for 1935, these shortcomings are recorded. Despite the negative trends in the development of teen clubs, there were also positive facts.

A puppet theater was opened in the model school No. 24, directions in the field of clubs developed in the following areas: chess, aero club, modeling, agricultural [7].

An analysis of the transcript of the regional meeting preserved in the archives on December 15, 1936, in which Komsomol organizers and committee secretaries took part, showed that the following areas developed in the club activities of teenagers: dramatic, physical culture, choral and aircraft modeling [8], as well as research and patronage work, landscaping and landscaping of streets [9].

In the 1930s, the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) attached great importance to the education of conscious builders of a new communist society in the development of club activities of teenagers by "developing a socialist attitude to study, work and social and practical work. It was necessary to strive to achieve such a situation that every child everywhere: at school, in the family, on the street, in the club - was "an example to all children"[10].

The fight against illiteracy in Orenburg region within the framework of club activities acquired quite large dimensions. We find confirmation of this in archival documents[11], which indicate that teenagers taught not only their peers, but also their own parents. In the city of Orenburg, 664 people were trained in 1930. In the Sharlyk district, 60 people have been trained by teenagers. In the summer of the same year, a cultural campaign to combat illiteracy was organized, in which about 500 teenagers took part.

As the analysis of historical and pedagogical literature on the problem under consideration showed, Pioneer Houses made a significant contribution to the introduction of teenagers to technical creativity, they became the center of the organization of teenagers' free time. The first pioneer house in the region was opened in January 1936 in Orenburg, and in 1937 10 more pioneer houses were opened in Orenburg: in Abdulino, Buguruslan, Buzuluk, Ilek, Pokrovka, Sorochinsk, Ponomarevka and three in Orsk[2].

The memo "On the state of extracurricular work in the Orenburg region in 1935" notes the following shortcomings in the development of club activities of teenagers:

- clubs in most collective farms are not organized;

- spontaneity in the organization of club activities;

- low material and technical base of clubs;

-insufficient attention of the Komsomol to the organization of clubs, of which there were 28. "There are pioneer counselors in 32 detachments, but they require mandatory training, more help from Komsomol organizations. The Komsomol district committee helps primary Komsomol organizations to work with children and pioneer detachments poorly. As a result, Komsomol organizations do not deal with these children and believe that their functions are over. And counselors and teachers should be engaged in work with children."

The interests of teenagers were harmoniously combined with the interests of the state. For example, if a country mastered technology, teenagers also wanted to master it. So, the campaign for technical knowledge began in 1932 with the organization of aircraft modeling clubs, radio and photography. In 1933, more than a hundred teenagers were engaged in aircraft modeling clubs in Orenburg. They learned to understand drawings, copy and independently design models of flying machines, comprehend the basics of controlling models of airplanes and gliders, got acquainted with the device of aircraft engines and the laws of aerodynamics. In 1934, aircraft modeler Maria Gerasimova won the championship among girls, her model flew 405 meters in 1 minute 55 seconds. Later, Gerasimova's model lasted 19 minutes and 15 seconds in the air. Gerasimova broke the world record for girls[8].

The development of technical creativity was not the only direction of the club activity of teenagers. Among the directions can be identified such as: collection of books for rural libraries, reading rooms, collective farm and state farm clubs; organization of posts for child protection at schools and institutions (housing and rental cooperative partnerships) to combat homelessness and neglect; campaigns to collect tree seeds for planting forest strips and participation in mass forest plantations; rodent control; cultural education among collective farmers.

In 1937, in order to eliminate homelessness, club associations were opened in factories where teenagers worked, as evidenced by a report from a member of the brigade for the survey of cultural and living conditions and industrial training Sinelnikov, who examined a furniture factory:

"1. 43 teenagers work at a furniture factory; 2. The age of teenagers from 13 to 18 years; 3. Komsomol members from teenagers – 2 people;4. Teenagers work in a room that is poorly heated, poorly lit and kept in unsanitary conditions; 5. Political information is carried out at the factory and a club for the study of the history of the CPSU (B) works" [11].

In club associations, teenagers liked to compose and conduct radio broadcasts. For example, in 1940 there was a radio program for pioneers "Lenin and Stalin in folk art" [12].

Great importance was attached to the employment of adolescents and the formation of conscious discipline in them. The Center for Documentation of the Modern History of the Orenburg Region has preserved a letter by N.K. Krupskaya to pioneers and schoolchildren "On conscious discipline"[9], in which it was noted that the behavior of adolescents in extracurricular time worries the whole society. The posts of young people controlled the loading and unloading of wagons, guarded trains with bread from looters and collected proposals for rationalization. Thus, at this stage, the purpose of the activities of club associations was to attract teenagers on the basis of public employment by voluntary association of interests.

The analysis of statistical materials allowed us to establish that there was a significant decrease in the club activity of teenagers during the years of the Great Patriotic War (1941 - 1945). This is confirmed by a sharp reduction in the number of club associations by almost half. Military-patriotic themes were clearly traced in the club activities, active explanatory work was carried out.

Club institutions were subject to accounting, which is confirmed by the "Instructions for the control accounting of public education institutions for local drug inspectors" for 1941. The control accounting of public education institutions was carried out by the TsUNKhU through the district and precinct inspection of the narkhoz account: "1. A club institution that is properly registered is an institution with the tasks of communist education, in which political and educational mass work, circle work, amateur art, lectures and reports, organization of cultural recreation of workers, etc. are systematically conducted [13].

As the analysis of the above-mentioned archival document shows, the following types of club institutions were distinguished: trade union clubs; reading huts; red teahouses (if political and educational work is carried out in them); club political and educational institutions serving the nomadic population; village Council clubs; collective farm clubs.

The main directions of the club's activities were: propaganda work, mass defensive work, pedagogical, socio-educational, military-patriotic. According to archival data [14], teenagers of club associations took part in medical and technical equipment of the front and the national economy. On May 7, 1943, Decree No. 1538 was issued, according to which students were to be actively involved in the collection of wild plants.

Archival documents and literature explained the role of club activities in supporting the front. In particular, it is indicated that "The Soviet Union is one big friendly family. All our people help the Red Army - old, young, men, women, boys, girls, boys, girls. Pioneers, schoolchildren do the right thing when they not only study, but also work, helping them to defeat the German fascist army more quickly. After all, each of us wants to drive the enemy off the ground as soon as possible. We decided to advise you to do what is necessary for the Red Army - collecting useful wild plants. Rosehip is an assistant to a fighter of the Red Army. In order for a person to be alive and well, he needs vitamins. There is vitamin "C". It can be found in rosehip. Scientists have calculated that 1 kg of dried mushrooms will replace 3 kg of meat.By collecting rosehip, mushrooms and other useful plants, you will become the real assistants of the front-line soldiers" [15].

The main reason for the decrease in the contingent of students of club associations during the war was the difficult material and living situation of the population. Newspapers reported that teenagers went to work in collective farms and state farms, enterprises and institutions to replace their fathers, older brothers and sisters who had gone to the front.

In accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of September 17, 1941 "On teaching agricultural work to high school students, students of technical schools and universities" in the 1941-1942 academic year in all educational institutions, including in club associations, the study of agricultural business (cultivation of crops, tractor device) was introduced. In the first military school year, the club associations increased their attention to the military and sanitary training of students. In addition, the club actively studied military history, military weapons, studied military-applied sports.

Club days were held in schools. In confirmation of this, we present a plan for holding a club day on February 6, 1944 in the 7th "A" class of secondary school No. 32 in the city of Chkalov [16].

The club activity of Orenburg teenagers shaped their personal qualities. Attention was drawn to this in the regulatory documents, which directly set the task of developing the personal qualities of adolescents before the club associations. They demanded to pay special attention to their creativity, discipline, responsibility, diligence, such personality qualities that allow teenagers to be subjects of their own life activity.

Table 1

The plan of the club day on February 6, 1944, 7th "A" class, secondary school No. 32. Topic: "Komsomol in the Patriotic War"


The content of the work

Who performs the Note


Report on the topic "Komsomol in the Patriotic War"

Member of the istor. mug X cl . Volkova


"The song of the brave" of the V-class teacher

Homeroom teacher - Lifshits

Homeroom teacher - Lifshits

School Secretary - Dojina

Thus, at different stages of the studied period, adolescents developed with varying degrees of intensity personality qualities demanded by historical time. In the 1930s-1940s, personality qualities in the field of artistic creativity developed. During the war years (1941-1945), strong–willed personality qualities were more in demand - perseverance, purposefulness, loyalty to duty, diligence. In the 1946-1950s, much attention was paid to the personal and professional self-determination of adolescents, the development of their cognitive abilities, success, the possibility of self-determination and self-realization.

Список литературы

1. Educational work of the club with children and adolescents: problems of a differentiated approach / edited by G.I. Frolova. - L., 1980. - 162 p.

2. Safonova, Z. G. Children's organizations of Orenburg region in the XX century / Z.G. Safonova. - Orenburg: OGPU, 2005. - 156 p.

3. Historical materials. Resolution of the People's Commissariat of Education "On the organization of extracurricular education of the RSFSR" [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: (accessed: 15.10. 2021).

4. Extract from the annual report of club-type institutions (events were held in Russian) // GBU "GAOO". - F. 1893. - Op.2.- 3. -L. 1-62.

5. Speech Natalia Sysoeva in the city night, the meeting with the Heroes of the Soviet Union on 24 February 1942 // GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697.- Op.1. - D. 671. - L. 13.

6. Memorandum on the status of extracurricular activities in the Orenburg region, 1935 // GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op.1.- D. 67. L. 44.

7. Muromtseva, S. M. the Chronicle of the Orenburg region 1934-1990: V 2 t. / S. M. Muromtseva.- Vol. 1.- Orenburg: Dimur, 2009. - 308 p.

8. Transcript regional meeting of the Komsomol of schools and Secretary of the Komsomol secondary and high schools 15 December 1936 // GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op.1.- D. 166. L. 19 - 27.

9. The Letter N. K. Krupskaya pioneers "On the conscious discipline" // GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op.1.- D. 68.- L. 40.

10. The decree of the Presidium of the Executive Committee on the work of the schools in the city of Orenburg // GBU "goo". - F. R. -1014. Op.1.- D. 523. L. 67.

11. A report from a member of the brigade for the survey of cultural and living conditions and industrial training of adolescents V. Sinelnikov, who examined the Furniture factory// GBU "OGASPI". - F.371. - Op.2.- D. 179.L.18.

12. The broadcast pioneers of Lenin and Stalin in folk art, 1940 // GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op. 1.- D. 888. - L. 1-96.

13. Instructions to control the accounting of the institutions of public education for inspectors of narazuke 1941// GBU "goo" in Orsk. - F. R. -1. Op.1.- L. 1-16.

14. Order No. 1538 of the people's Commissar of education of the RSFSR of may 7, 1943, on the participation of teachers, the pioneers in collecting wild, wild, medicinal and technical plants for the war effort and economy// GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op.1.- D. 699.- L. 73.

15. A letter to the heads of the young pioneer camps for all students, pioneers and pioneers// GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op.1.- D. 699. - L. 40.

16. The broadcast pioneers of Lenin and Stalin in folk art, 1940 // GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op. 1.- D. 888. - L. 1-96.

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