Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
The article reveals the pedagogical possibilities of the club activity of Orenburg teenagers in the 1930s - 1950s for the modern practice of additional education, consisting in educational, personality-oriented and socio-pedagogical positions.

Ключевые слова:
club activity of teenagers, Orenburg region, additional edu- cation; educational, personality-oriented, socio-pedagogical opportunities
Текст произведения (PDF): Читать Скачать

Socio-cultural and economic transformations have led to the need to modernize the system of additional education. A strategic goal has been set for modern additional education – the development of a creatively thinking teenager, the formation of his social competencies, civic attitudes, a culture of a healthy and safe lifestyle. Club activity is a means of satisfying the cognitive interest and creative needs of teenagers.

The analysis of historical and pedagogical knowledge makes it possible to compare the pedagogical past with the modern theory and practice of additional education, which, in turn, allows us to assess the current state of additional education, "the crises and risks to which it is subject, as well as to develop an effective strategy to overcome them" [1, 2, 3].

When identifying the pedagogical possibilities of the club activity of Orenburg teenagers in the 1930s-1950s for the modern practice of additional education, we were based on the position that historical and pedagogical knowledge acts as a "guarantor of the quality of the modern educational system of Russia during its active modernization" (A.M. Allagulov) [4, p. 119].

The following pedagogical possibilities of club activity of Orenburg region teenagers in the 1930s-1950s for the modern practice of additional education are identified: educational (expansion of teenagers' ideas about creativity, morality, humanity, ethics, aesthetics, psychology); personality-oriented (humanistic orientation, formation of personal experience, factors of personal self-determination) and socio-pedagogical opportunities (self-realization of adolescents in group relationships).

Educational pedagogical opportunities were realized by expanding the range of teenagers' knowledge about creativity, morality, humanity, ethics, aesthetics, psychology, as well as information about events taking place in the country, region and city.

The presented historical facts, previously cited in the study, indicate that:

-teenagers were offered a wide range of activities in club associations;

- assistance was provided to club associations both in material, technical and methodological plans;

-systematic interaction of teenagers with parents and specialists in certain professions was organized.

So, in Orenburg region in 1938 in the cinema of R.P. Sorochinsk the regional Olympiad on children's amateur performances was opened [5]. Meetings with representatives of culture were organized for teenagers. For example, in 1951, a meeting of students with Moscow artists took place in the Chkalovsky House of Pioneers. Honored Artist of the RSFSR Rina Zelenaya, Laureate of the All-Union Competition of Pop Artists Ivan Shmelev, laureate of the All-Union Competition of Performing Musicians Naum Stark and artist Boris Brunov performed in front of the audience[6]. Amateur art shows, creative reports of club associations were the daily practice of club activities.

The transcript of the regional meeting of Komsomol schools and secretaries of the Komsomol committees of incomplete secondary and secondary schools of Orenburg region, which took place on December 15, 1936, has been preserved in the archives. It noted: "The issue of cultural mass work is very big. I want to focus on 3 points: the work of the circles, how we conduct changes and preparation for the holidays. Taking into account the interest of children of different ages, we have created a number of clubs: physical education, choral, model aircraft, drama, chess. There are more high school students in physical education. We hold competitions for the best team of the class. Most of the clubs work under the guidance of the students themselves. Students were involved in the systematic reading of fiction. There is a library circle. Drama club students are preparing for the Pushkin Jubilee" [7].

Such club activity, carried out with the activity of the teenagers themselves, was creative. And not only in the artistic sphere, but also in inventing, creating existing models and mechanisms, performing labor and social duties.

The position put forward by Ya.A. Ponomarev is important, in which it is argued that the application of a known solution by an individual to a new object is a creative act[8].Therefore, any club activity of teenagers had elements of creativity. But in order to transfer a known action to a new object, it is necessary to assimilate this action at the beginning. Therefore, it is not necessary to neglect the reproductive activity of a teenager, whose experience is a component of the content of education. This is how creativity is taught - first, the assimilation of reproductive activity, then its repeated reproduction and, finally, transfer to a new object as a creative act.

The very same reproductive activity of a teenager becomes possible after he learns the experience of cognitive activity necessary to obtain information about the phenomenon. Such information is assimilated both through a system of special classes, including in scheduled activities, and in any cognitive interaction – on excursions, in conversations, when reading books, communicating with other knowledge carriers.

In the real practice of club activity, these different types of experience (cognitive, reproductive, creative) of a teenager usually exist inseparably, but in aggregate, being realized together in different situations.

In artistic activity, "it is important for a teenager to perceive the unique sensual appearance of an object as a carrier of his soul, an expression of character, fate, aspirations, related to the inner life of the teenager himself" [8]. If there is no "complicit" attitude to the subject, to the world, then a work, a poem will not work.

Classes in decorative and applied creativity help a teenager to become more aware of the feeling of love for the Motherland, to search for and create new decorative forms, to cultivate the ability to think outside the box, provide an opportunity to enhance the overall culture. Both in the past and today, decorative and applied art is flourishing: on the one hand, there is great interest in traditions, on the other hand, new materials, equipment, technologies open up unlimited opportunities for the embodiment of compositional design, emotional self-expression.

A teenager can engage in literary creativity, which consists in creating literary works (a poem, an essay, an essay).In a literary work created by him, there should be the most important thing - a unique content, an attempt at a personal solution to a problem that worries every person at this age.

In modern musical activity, the following types of creative abilities are developing

- the ability to create productively;

- the ability to creatively perceive music.

In club activities, teenagers are actively engaged in technical creativity. It is established that the acquisition of scientific, general labor, general technical and special knowledge and skills in classes on the basics of science, labor training and industrial labor should go in parallel with the inclusion of students in creative activities. Under this condition, the formation and consolidation of knowledge and skills is much more effective, since teenagers see in them the need for personal self-realization.

Currently, effective methods have been identified, including product modeling, manipulator design, design documentation with a reduced amount of data, performing creative tasks, working with changes to previously created structures, experiments with thought, troubleshooting using technical tools (including simulators).

Scientific and technical creativity is designed to develop the research capabilities of adolescents with a high level of cognitive activity, a tendency to research in the field of exact and natural sciences (physics, astronomy, mathematics).

The socio-pedagogical direction of creativity is designed to expand the knowledge of adolescents in the field of professional activity, increase general and technical culture, psychological and emotional stability.

Tourism and local history creativity includes teenagers in practical classes on the surrounding world. Tourism and local history are two complementary means of helping to understand the natural and cultural features of the environment. Tourist work is based on the cultural and natural conditions of the region, and local history work includes such forms of tourist work as hiking, excursions.

Ecological and biological creativity of teenagers not only provides knowledge about the environment and environmental problems, but also develops the ability to make informed decisions that are aimed at changing people's behavior in relation to the environment.

In the process of sports, the lost strength of adolescents is restored, thereby the recreational function of leisure is realized. Sport is an area of social activity, which is a set of spiritual and material values created and used by society for the purpose of physical development of a person, strengthening his health and improving his motor activity.

It should be noted that in the period studied in the study (1930s-1950s), the paradigm of knowledge in education dominated, which determined the set of skills and abilities of schoolchildren. At the same time, the advanced teachers of that time understood the need to go beyond such a set of educational content, mainly due to the realization of personal needs. This task was realized in club activities, not only covering all types of activities, but also based on an emotional and value attitude to it.

Even more significant changes in the content of education were made by club activity with a personality-oriented interpretation of its component composition. All four types of experience (cognitive activity, reproductive activity, creative activity, emotional and value relations) were not just comprehensively revealed in club activities, but became fundamentally necessary for its implementation.

Let us emphasize that the club activity of teenagers implicitly, that is, in its essence, contains personality-oriented development opportunities for its subjects, which sometimes, even despite circumstances, are implemented in specific projects and programs. Club activity is not just a complex of different types of activities, but a special type of activity for the self-realization of adolescents in group relationships, which are aimed at affirming the independent value of the individual while preserving the freedom of all club members.

We will highlight the factors of the realization of the humanistic orientation of the club activity of adolescents[9]:

-voluntary inclusion of adolescents in various activities;

- the teacher's faith in every teenager;

- prevention of negative consequences in pedagogical interaction;

- ensuring the social security of adolescents;

- taking into account the individual needs and interests, preferences of adolescents.

When organizing club activities of teenagers, a number of rules should be observed:

- taking into account the active position of a teenager;

-respect for the personality of a teenager;

-protection of the interests of pupils, continuous search for optimal solutions to current problems;

- formation of humane relations in the club activities of teenagers.

Thus, three main directions of modern education are reflected: socio-cultural, consisting in the choice and implementation of lifestyle and behavior; individual, manifested in the self-restoration of personality; participatory, characterized by a choice of values.

The organization of the work of club associations in the 1930s – 1950s is characterized by a humanistic orientation and a variety of activities. The study of the historical and pedagogical chronicle of events allows us to confirm this conclusion. So on August 25, 1935, by the decree of the presidium of the regional executive committee, the building on Pionerskaya Street, house 9. in Orenburg was transferred to the organization of the House of Pioneers named after the XXI International Youth Day[10]. A meeting of young correspondents of youth newspapers with the participation of correspondents of the region took place at Nikelstroy in Orsk. In Orenburg hosted the opening of a chess and draughts club with the participation of parents and athletes. In 1936, a circle for the elimination of illiteracy and illiteracy was created at the Bauman collective farm in the Secretarial district.

Thus, the pedagogical possibilities of the club activity of Orenburg teenagers in the 1930s-1950s for the modern practice of additional education of children are determined, consisting in educational, personality-oriented and socio-pedagogical opportunities for the development of its subjects. The level of activity of adolescents depends on the possibility of satisfying their needs, manifested in motives that encourage activity and are a form of manifestation of needs. An important factor of club activity is its meaning, which forms the core of the motive of teenagers' activity.

Список литературы

1. Lukatsky, M. A. Historical-pedagogical research, as one of the areas historic ask / M. A. Lukatsky / / Historical and pedagogical journal. - 2015. - No. 3. - P. 34-50.

2. Pichugin, V. To. Anthropological-pedagogical concept in Russia at the beginning of the second half of XIX - early XX century author. dis. ... cande. PED. Sciences / V. K. Pichugin. - Volgograd, 2009. - 28 P.

3. Shevelev, A.N. The domestic school: history and modern problems. Lectures from the stories of Russian pedagogy / A.N. Shevelev. - St. Petersburg. KARO, 2003. - 432 p.

4. Allagulov.M. The role of pedagogical science in the formation of educational policy in Russia in the first beginning of the second half of the XIX - early XX century. / A.M. Allagulov / / Notices of the Volgograd State Pedagogical University. - 2013. - № 5 (80). - P. 118-123.

5. Amateur Art Olympiad in Sorochinsk / / Collective farm labor. - 1937. - No. 20.- p.4.

6. Meeting with Moscow artists / / Chkalovskaya commune. - 1951. - No. 78.- p.3.

7. By decree of the Presidium of Voise on the work of the all-Union society of inventors with young technicians and inventors//GBU "AGAPI". - F. 1697. Op.1.- Di. 165. L. 25.

8. Psychology endowments of children and adolescents / right. N.With. Of Leites.- M.: Academy, 1996. - 416 p.

9. Serikov, V. V. the Development of individuals in the educational process / V. V. Serikov. - M.: Logos, 2012, - 448 p

10. Resolution of the Presidium of the regional executive committee on the transfer of the building along the street. Pionerskaya, 9 in the city of Orenburg for organizations of the House of Pioneers named after the XXI International Youth Day // GBU "GAOO". - F. R. -1014. - Op.1. - Di. 3. L. 179.

11. Shilova, N. A. Club association as an environment of personal self-determination of adolescents: abstract. dis. ... candidate of Pedagogical Sciences / N.A. Shilova. - St. Petersburg, 2015. - 25 p.

Войти или Создать
* Забыли пароль?