In the article, the authors reveal the features of sanogenic and pathogenic thinking of senior schoolchildren, indicate the methods and techniques for its development. The article presents the results of a study on the implementation of the psychological and pedagogical program for the development of sanogenic thinking in senior schoolchildren "Think healthy!"
thinking, sanogenic and pathogenic thinking, senior schoolchildren, program for the development of sanogenic thinking
In a difficult epidemiological situation in the world, the value of human health is increasing. The World Health Organization calls on to pay special attention to the primary duty of a person, as a biosocial being, to take good care of his physical, mental, intellectual health in order to form a strong nation.
The phenomenon of "health" belongs to the category of interdisciplinary. It is studied by medicine, sociology, valeology, psychology, pedagogy, etc. Each of these sciences focuses on certain aspects of this phenomenon. The issue of protecting and maintaining health is directly correlated with the level of development of healthy, productive thinking among representatives of society. This type of thinking in science is called sanogenic, which makes it possible for a person to be aware of and manage their mental states.
In domestic and foreign research practice, there are various methods for the development of constructive, rational thinking (A. Beck, A. Ellis, R. McMullin, etc.); methodology of teaching sanogenic thinking (Yu.M. Orlov); technologies of teaching sanogenic thinking for children and adults (T.N. Vasilieva, O.S. Grebenyuk, S.N. Morozyuk, etc.).
The relevance of the formation of sanogenic thinking is based on the conclusion that there are a lot of diseases that arise as a result of an improper lifestyle, excessive emotional experiences, psychological traumatization of the individual. One of the most effective ways to correct an obvious outcome is to develop a positive mindset.
Proceeding from this, a research problem arises: what are the methods and techniques of sanogenic thinking in senior schoolchildren?
The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that
- senior schoolchildren are characterized by the dominance of the middle and low level of development of sanogenic thinking, which manifests itself in a tendency to destructive attitudes and beliefs, stay in negative emotional experiences;
- the use of such active methods as discussions, case tasks, activating and stimulating questionnaires, maps of the future, problem situations; techniques - game technologies, trainings and auto-training, sketches, metaphors, phrases-attitudes, etc. within the framework of a special psychological and pedagogical program will help to increase the level of mastery of the means of sanogenic realistic thinking, the level of self-esteem of sanogenic thinking of senior schoolchildren.
Yu.M. Orlov proposed to differentiate thinking focused on self-management, self-awareness, and self-control as sanogenic - pathogenic. By sanogenic thinking, the author understands a type of thinking aimed at generating health: resolving internal conflicts, reducing emotional, psychological and physical stress, preventing diseases of the body. According to the logic of Yu.M. Orlov, thinking that leads to dissonance, giving rise to diseases, is called pathogenic. For a more accurate understanding of the specifics of sanogenic behavior, it is important to highlight the features of pathogenic thinking: negative imagination as a way of cultivating negative emotions and reactions. For example, a person may have the following chain of events in his thoughts: analysis of resentment, building a plan for revenge, a feeling of uselessness and humiliation, a conclusion about his own inconsistency and uselessness of existence. Or an offended person who is unable to prevent the launch of an act of negatively colored thinking becomes pathologically touchy, which entails a loss of faith in himself, a low level of self-esteem. The lack of reflection skills leads to the fact that the individual is not able to analyze his own behavior and its consequences. There is a tendency to cultivate negative feelings in oneself (resentment, jealousy, bashfulness, fear, resentment, etc.); the tendency of the individual in his thoughts to return to the past again and again, to live with certain memories, which leads to shifting responsibility for what is happening to others; programming negative events in the near or future future; experiencing constant fear of misfortunes that will have to be faced in the future, etc. [4, p. 74-86].
Summarizing and systematizing the most striking manifestations of pathogenic thinking presented by Yu.M. Orlov, K.N. Morozyuk identified the main forms of its manifestation:
• psychological protection, which manifests itself through aggressive behavior, fears, the desire to go into the world of dreams, fantasies, etc.;
• negative nature of the displayed emotions (alertness, guilt, resentment, etc.);
• stereotyped and stereotyped thinking (imposing labels, role expectations, violent threats, thirst for revenge, etc.) [2, p. 218-224].
In contrast to the pathogenic, sanogenic thinking has a beneficial effect on the improvement of the psyche, reduces the level of internal tension, and eliminates past grievances. Sanogenic thinking, unambiguously, can be called conscious, having an arbitrary character.
V.A. Nasonov concretized the typical features of sanogenic thinking: a high level of concentration of attention on the positive aspects of the object of thought and awareness; possession of a wide range of knowledge that concretize the features and principles of the functioning of mental states that require constant self-control. Sanogenic thinking is interconnected with knowledge of the psychological foundations of personal development and formation. Consequently, thinking about offense will be based on knowledge of its structure, reasons for its appearance, options for manifestation. The ability for reflection and self-reflection includes a number of skills: analysis of one's own negative images of memory from the side of what is happening; work with negative emotions, feelings and manifestations; detailing actions and actions; systematization of past experience as a whole.
Sanogenic thinking has a fading effect on negative images that arise in our consciousness, by freeing ourselves from affective content. The point is that during repeated reproduction, consciousness does not plunge into a stressful situation, acute feelings do not flare up, since the content of the emotion is conscious, understandable and is not associated with negative reinforcement. In this case, a person develops the ability to timely stop a thought act, which carries emotional stress - the possession of a stop reaction, which prevents the consolidation of manifestations and traits of thinking of a pathogenic nature. Each person is faced with the task of cultivating confidence in himself, in his intentions, in the methods of the chosen behavior, which means possession of sanogenic thinking. [3, p. 64-69].
The most sensitive period of the formation of sanogenic thinking is school age, therefore, it is important for a modern educational psychologist to understand the similarities and differences of various strategies for the formation of health; to understand the process of thinking as the highest form of cognitive activity of a student; differentiate types of thinking (theoretical - practical, productive - reproductive, pathogenic - sanogenic, etc.).
As noted by D. Jampolski, senior schoolchildren with a successful variant of personality formation naturally have a high level of development of cognitive abilities, are confident in their own strengths, easily control emotional manifestations, successfully cope with educational activities, and quickly adapt to changing conditions. All of these personal properties and characteristics are the fundamental basis for the development of sanogenic thinking [1, p. 30-32].
The activity of a teacher-psychologist on this topic includes the following areas of work: diagnostics of the level of development and possession of the means of sanogenic thinking by senior schoolchildren; developmental work; individual psychological counseling of students on the formation of positive thinking; methodical work with teachers.
The methods for the development of sanogenic thinking in high school students are: thematic conversations and discussions, case tasks, activating and stimulating questionnaires, practical and theoretical studies. Techniques include games, trainings (social pedagogical, auto-training), metaphors, story tales, phrases, attitudes, etc.
Our experimental work consisted of three stages: ascertaining, forming and controlling. MBOU "Secondary School No. 7" in Maikop, Republic of Adygea, was used as an experimental base. The subjects were 63 students of the 10th-11th grades, of whom 31 people made up the experimental group (EG), 32 students - the control group (CG).
The ascertaining stage was associated with the diagnosis of the level of development of sanogenic thinking (SGT) in senior students of the experimental and control groups.
Empirical research methods were:
- methodology "Assessment of the level of SGT proficiency" (Yu.M. Orlov);
- “Methodology for self-assessment of the SGT level” (Yu.M. Orlov);
- "Cognitive-emotive test (CET)" (Yu.M. Orlov, S.N. Morozyuk);
- test "Necessary personality profile" (Yu.M. Orlov).
Analysis of the results of the ascertaining experiment allowed us to draw the following conclusions:
- the subjects of the experimental and control groups are dominated by low (38%; 36.5%) and medium (38%; 36.5%) levels of SGT proficiency;
- the average level of self-assessment of sanogenic thinking among the subjects of the experimental and control groups was (38%; 36.5%), respectively;
- the dominant characteristics of thinking in the subjects of both groups are "the inconsistency of the behavior of others with my expectations" and "excitement of guilt in others". "Sanogenic realistic thinking" ranks third out of five diagnosed indicators.
For a more comprehensive study of the factors that ensure the development of sanogenic thinking, we studied the level of formation of the needs that determine it. As a result, we concluded that the three basic needs "need for achievement, need for affiliation", "need for dominance" are underdeveloped. The data obtained confirmed the relevance of the program for the development of sanogenic thinking in senior schoolchildren and determined the prospects of our work.
In order to conduct a formative experiment, we have developed and tested a psychological and pedagogical program for the development of sanogenic thinking in senior schoolchildren "Think healthy!" The program consisted of 12 sessions, each 45 minutes long. The meetings were held 2 times a week for 6 weeks. The thematic plan of the program included the following lessons: introductory "I and my thinking!", "The ability to forgive is the key to happiness", "My safety is in my hands!", "Say «no!» categorical conclusions and assessments", "I can give up thoughts that hurt me", "We leave the past in the past", the final lesson: "I can look at the world differently!".
The selection of psychological and pedagogical methods and techniques for the development of sanogenic thinking in senior schoolchildren was carried out by us taking into account some positions (advantages): in the course of classes, situations are created for studying oneself; there is an understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and feelings, their differentiation into positive and negative; the launch of the development of new ways of thinking is organized; the physical and mental activity of senior schoolchildren increases; the actualization of realistic means of sanogenic thinking is carried out.
At the control stage of the study, during repeated diagnostics of the level of development of sanogenic thinking in senior students of the experimental and control groups, analysis and interpretation of the data obtained, the subjects of the experimental group showed a decrease in the low level of possession of the means of sanogenic thinking from 38% to 19%; an increase in the average level from 38% to 43%; high - from 24% to 38%. The number of students with a conformal, predominant, anxious, sensitive and introverted type decreased, therefore, the subjects became more self-confident, learned to control their own emotions, began to cope more successfully with educational activities and more easily adapt to changing social conditions.
According to the results of the program "Thinking Healthy!" there was a decrease in the low level of development of sanogenic thinking from 29% to 14%, the average level increased from 38% to 48%, and a high level - from 33% to 38%. The positive dynamics of the formation of feelings, which determine the sanogenic direction of thinking, are revealed. "Self-deprecation of «I»" decreased from 48% to 38%; "Inciting guilt in others" - from 81% to 62%; "The behavior of others does not correspond to my expectations" - from 90% to 67%. "Appealing thinking" increased from 57% to 79%, "sanogenic realistic thinking" - from 62% to 86%.
As a result of the formative experiment, the need profile of senior schoolchildren has also undergone a change. There was an increase in the need for achievements from 67% to 86%; affiliations - from 86% to 95%; dominance - from 76% to 90%, which confirms the development of sanogenic thinking.
Thus, the implementation of the psychological and pedagogical program for the development of sanogenic thinking in senior schoolchildren "Think healthy!" contributed to an increase in their level of sanogenic thinking when using the selected methods and techniques, which confirmed our hypothesis.
The program for the development of sanogenic thinking in senior schoolchildren seems to us to be an extremely promising theoretical direction from the point of view of preventing diseases, developing healthy thinking in humans and can be introduced and successfully implemented both in the work of psychologists and in pedagogical activity.
1. Jampolski, D. How to find inner balance and improve relationships with others / D. Jampolski. - M: Education, 2016. - 196 p.
2. Morozyuk, S.N. Sanogenic reflection as a factor in optimizing character accentuation and increasing the effectiveness of educational activity: dis ... doc. psychol. sciences / S.N. Morozyuk. - M: Academy, 2018. - 480 p.
3. Nasonov, V.A. The problem of the formation of sanogenic thinking in schoolchildren / V.A. Nasonov // World of Science, Culture, Education. - 2008. - No. 2. - P. 64-69.
4. Orlov, Yu.M. Ascent to individuality / Yu.M. Orlov. - M: RPA, 2019. - 168 p.