The article is devoted to the problem of psychological characteristics of middle and top managers. The article presents a study, the purpose of which was to identify the psychological characteristics of middle and senior managers. The object of the study was the personality of middle and senior managers. The subject of the research were the psychological features of the middle and top managers. To achieve the goal the following methods were used: the methodology of research of communicative abilities (COS), the "Kettel test", the test of motivation of achievement of success - avoidance of failure A. Mehrabian in modification of M.S. Magomed-Eminov. The empirical study is conducted, the results are presented and analyzed, conclusions are formulated.
ersonality, manager, abilities, communicative abilities, motivational tendencies
Introduction. In today's environment, organizations are placing more and more demands on their managers. In the situation of reorganization and restructuring of companies, these requirements increase many times. The head as the main subject of managerial activity forms his individual identity and uniqueness of the subjective factor, which crucially determines the nature of management in the organization . In this connection the estimation of psychological peculiarities of the managers of different levels is one of the conditions for optimization of the management process and that is why it becomes a priority task of the personnel department [3, 5]. Assessment of psychological characteristics of middle and top managers, who coordinate and control the work of junior managers, heading the organization itself and major units for the successful operation and development of the enterprise as a whole, acquires a special meaning.
Purpose of the study: to identify the psychological characteristics of middle and senior managers.
Object of the study: the personality of middle and senior managers.
Subject of the research: psychological peculiarities of the middle and top managers.
Research methods and techniques. In our study we used testing, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data obtained. The research was carried out with the help of the following techniques: the technique of research of communicative abilities (COC), the technique "Kettel test", the test of motivation of achievement of success - avoidance of failure A. Mehrabian in modification of M.S. Magomed-Eminov [1, 4].
Main part. Results. During the empirical research according to the aim and tasks of the research, the number of respondents included 24 people, heads of trade enterprises in Irkutsk city and Irkutsk region, 12 people were middle managers, 12 people were top managers.
At the initial stage of the research we studied individual-psychological peculiarities of middle and top managers.
The dominant individual psychological features of top and middle managers are as follows: abstract thinking, which is inherent in 30% of top managers and 20% of middle managers; emotional instability, which was revealed in 35% of top managers and 28% of middle managers, indicating insecurity, Moodiness, low stress tolerance, excessive emotional tension, frustration, low emotion control and behavioral control. 27% of top managers do not take into account public opinion, indicating that such people are characterized by independence, focus on their own decisions, independence, resourcefulness, desire to have their own opinion, perhaps even a tendency to oppose themselves to the group and desire to dominate it; 40% of middle managers are characterized by courage, inclination to risk, the ability to easily overcome life obstacles; trustworthiness, coziness, ability to get along with people are characteristic of 20% of respondents.
Next, we studied the level of communication abilities of middle and senior managers. All levels of communicative abilities were revealed in middle and senior managers. The dominant levels of communicative abilities in the majority of the tested top managers are "average" (40%) and "above average" (28%). For middle managers, the dominant level of communicative abilities is "above average" (40%). The examinees whose level of communicative abilities "above average" are not lost in a new environment, quickly find friends, constantly strive to expand their circle of acquaintances, engaged in social activities, help relatives, friends, show initiative in communication, with pleasure take part in the organization of social events, are able to make an independent decision in a difficult situation.
For examinees with an "average" level of communicative abilities, striving for contacts with people is characteristic, such people do not limit their circle of acquaintances, defend their opinion, and plan their work. However, the potential of these inclinations is not highly stable. It is worth noting that a small number of examinees from both groups are characterized by a "high" level of communicative abilities. In the group of top managers, only 12% of the subjects are characterized by such a level, and in the group of middle managers, 13% of the subjects are characterized by such a level. It is worth noting that only a small number of examinees in both groups have the following communicative characteristics: striving to organize and communicate; such people quickly orient themselves in difficult situations, behave at ease in a new collective; in an important matter or a difficult situation they prefer to make an independent decision, defend their opinion and get it accepted by comrades; they can bring life into unfamiliar company, love to organize various games, events, and to be persistent.
The level "below average" is characteristic of 21% of top managers and 13% of middle managers, indicating that such individuals do not seek to communicate, feel constrained in new company, prefer to spend time alone, limit their acquaintances, have difficulties in establishing contacts with people and speaking before an audience, poorly oriented in unfamiliar situations, cannot defend their opinions, and take hard feelings for offense. Manifestation of initiative in social activities is extremely low, in many cases, he prefers to avoid making independent decisions.
Particular attention should be paid to the managers whose level of communication abilities is "low". This level was detected in 9% of top managers and 16% of middle managers.
Next, we studied the motivational tendencies of middle and senior executives. For the majority of top executives tested (58%), the dominant motivational tendency is "striving for success. Such individuals strive to achieve their success no matter what. The majority of middle managers (56%) have "striving to avoid failure" as their dominant motivational tendency. Such people tend to act in any situation to avoid failure, especially where their actions are judged by others. The main thing is not to make a mistake, to avoid failure, even at the cost of a significant change in the original, main goal, its complete or partial non-achievement.
Conclusion and conclusions. Summarizing the results of our study aimed at identifying the psychological characteristics of middle and senior managers, we can make the following conclusions:
- dominant individual-psychological features of top and middle managers tested are: abstract thinking; emotional instability, which indicates insecurity, mistrustfulness, low stress tolerance, excessive emotional tension, frustration, low control of emotions and behavior, impulsiveness, affectivity and dependence on moods; high activity, tension, high work stress; dominance, self-confidence, which speak of a bossy, independent, self-confident.
- dominant in the majority of the tested top managers are "average" and "above average" levels of communicative abilities. For middle managers, the dominant level of communicative abilities is the "above average" level. It is worth noting that a small number of subjects in both groups are characterized by a "high" level of communicative abilities. The level of "below average" and "low" was also revealed in the subjects of top managers and in the subjects of middle managers.
- In the majority of top managers' test subjects, the dominant motivational tendency is "striving for success". Most middle managers have "striving to avoid failure" as their dominant motivational tendency.
After conducting a study of the psychological characteristics of middle and senior managers, we concluded that the managers of both groups need to increase and develop the level of communicative abilities, as well as stabilize emotional stability.
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