The article examines the structure and content of the original training complex "Conveyor", the purpose of which is to increase the level of motivation, the development of functional abilities of athletes with the highest qualifications. The material of the article is a sequential presentation of the modules that make up the training complex.
sambo; educational and training process; versatility; elite sports; uniqueness
Today, as never before, a person's lifestyle is increasingly becoming a measure of his health and longevity. Physical culture and sports have a significant impact on both human development in particular and society as a whole, being an integral part of the general culture.
Modern martial arts make high demands on the versatile fitness of athletes. They increase every year: physical, technical and tactical training becomes an important aspect. The technical one remains fundamental, which is a long-term and purposeful process of mastering new motor actions and improving the technique of those that have already been studied . However, in recent years, there has been a need for the psychological preparation of athletes in connection with the difficult epidemiological situation and the general global problem caused by the coronavirus pandemic.
If we take into account the fact that at the session on July 20, 2021 in Tokyo, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the first time recognized sambo as an Olympic sport , it can be seen that sambo is undergoing significant changes in the rules of the competition, which, of course, affects training of wrestlers, which needs to improve the methodology of the training process, including among highly qualified athletes. It is safe to say that the popularity of such a sport as sambo in the world is growing rapidly, and therefore competition is sharply increasing, in this regard, the level of motivation on the part of foreign athletes should increase: everyone wants to proudly represent their country at the Olympic Games and International tournaments in this kind of sport.
Sport, in particular sambo wrestling, develops in a person the wrestling qualities of a personality that are important for life: it teaches us to overcome difficulties, especially of a psychological nature, to act adequately in extreme situations, which makes people more viable in critical circumstances.
The formation of an athlete's motivation is one of the central problems of modern sports. Its relevance is due to the organization of the training process, in which the preparation of highly qualified sambists for competitions provides an optimal functional state, it is used as a basis for the manifestation of the best physical qualities of an athlete in the process of competitive activity. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that wrestling requires a high level of motivation to achieve sports results at the stage of higher sports mastery. Research shows that in competitive fights, in addition to the need to attack, defend and counterattack, an athlete faces a wide range of other tasks: to conduct reconnaissance, to retain the initiative, advantage, to restore strength, to demonstrate activity. In various works on sports motivation, the dependence is described: the wider the range of tasks successfully solved by an athlete in a duel, the more pronounced and more stable his motivation for achieving a high result is .
To achieve the maximum effect for solving these problems, we have developed a training complex "Conveyor", which is one of the tools for increasing the level of motivation, which is intended for highly qualified sambo athletes. Its structure is made up of various technical elements and special exercises for wrestlers, aimed at developing endurance and speed-strength abilities. It also includes the improvement and development of wrestling techniques in aerobic submaximal power.
The structure of this training complex is determined by three main modules: preparatory, main and final parts. During the warm-up, which is the preparatory stage of the training complex, the fulfillment of general developmental exercises and special tasks for sambo wrestlers becomes fundamental: each of the athletes should warm up well and prepare their body for the upcoming load with the help of running, acrobatic elements, standing and ground warm-ups. After the athletes have passed the period of training and adaptation of the body to physical activity, they conduct a light warm-up fight on the ground, while observing a special task set by the coach: the first number must conduct a painful hold, hold or turn over their opponent. The second number must take the starting position: "lying on your stomach". The first number actively conducts attacks, trying to complete the assigned tasks within two minutes, while the second number passively defends itself, not allowing his opponent to carry out technical actions, while not performing counter-actions on the ground. However, when attacking, the opponent must always return to the starting position, that is, lie on his stomach and defend himself throughout the time allotted for this task. After two minutes, the athletes change roles, and already the first number is passively defending itself, taking the starting position "lying on its stomach", and the second number actively attacks the first. Consequently, the total fight time in this mode will be four minutes. After wrestling on the ground, athletes restore their HR (heart rate) and prepare to form in one rank, so that the coach can form groups and explain to the athletes the tasks set in the main part of the training process.
To perform the "Conveyor" complex, it is necessary to divide the athletes into microgroups of four people in the corresponding weight categories. Each of the participants is assigned an individual number, which in the process of training determines his task. While training in this mode, athletes do not have a permanent partner, which allows them not to undergo significant fatigue from physical exertion and to recover in a short period of time for the next task.
The main part of the complex is made up of special tasks and exercises organized according to the principle of circular training. A certain amount of time is allocated for each task.
The first stage is a fight in the stalls of one participant against two opponents. Initially, the first athlete is attacked on the ground by partners nos. 2 and 3. The first number must confront two opponents at once, trying to avoid the attacking actions of the opponents. In turn, participants numbered 2 and 3, respectively, are allowed to carry out only painful techniques "lever of the elbow" and "infringement of the Achilles tendon", all types of holdings are also allowed. If the participants with numbers 2 and 3 performed a painful hold to the first, then they must immediately release and stop further actions so that the latter could rise to his knees and continue the fight. Participants numbered 2 and 3 must be very careful: they need to see when the first number makes the change, slapping their hand on the carpet or on their opponents. If these participants simultaneously sit down for a painful hold on the leg or on the arms and the first number has no opportunity to surrender, in this case, he gives a voice signal for surrender with the phrase "yes". Other painful holds are prohibited in order to avoid injury. During this period, the participant with serial number 4 does not perform any actions and waits for his turn to change partners. It should be noted that this type of fight involves the defense and simultaneous attack of the participant with the first serial number. His task is to skip fewer painful holds and try to do it yourself, which is much more difficult in a situation of struggle against two opponents. The task of the attacking side is to increase the load on the defending participant, as well as to hold holds and implement painful holds. However, it should be noted that during the implementation of this block, it is impossible to produce any types of knots (for example, the use of painful techniques on the joints, knee lever, painful technique "canary" is prohibited). The coach must control and observe all the struggling triplets: it is necessary to monitor and pay close attention to the athlete with the first number, as he is in a potentially losing situation. The duration of the fight in threes is determined by four minutes.
After the end of the time, the participant with the first serial number immediately assumes a prone position on his back, and the attacking side carries out a painful hold-arm of the elbow, sits on a painful hold on the right and left hands at the same time. The first task is to keep your hands firmly in the "lock" position so that the partners do not break the grip. In this case, the attacking side is prohibited from resorting to a painful technique, fully unbending the arm of the first number in the elbow joint. As soon as the grip is broken, the first number of the microgroup takes the starting position, firmly grabbing himself by both lapels of his equipment, and the partners again solve the problem described above. This continues for one minute. After that, the athlete with the first number goes to rest, instead of him comes the participant with the fourth serial number, who was not involved in the fight against the first.
Then there is a displacement: the task of the first participant is performed by the second, and those who have serial numbers 3 and 4 become the attacker. This approach is carried out until the next circle is completed. Then, in the same way, an attack is made on participant number 3 (those who have numbers 1 and 4 attack him) and on serial number 4 (participants with numbers 1 and 2 attack him). As a result, each number passes such a test: each number manages to play the role of an attacking and defending athlete.
After the attack was made on each number, the first stage of the training complex "Conveyor" ends. There is a general recovery of all athletes within three minutes, then the training participants overcome five laps by jogging at an easy pace, establish the rhythm of HR and breathing.
The second stage is standing up sketches. The work is carried out in microgroups: the participant under the first number makes speed tests of the second, third and fourth numbers for a certain time (one minute), then there is a change: the second number draws the first, third and fourth numbers. Each number should be sketched within one minute. It is worth noting that the time for rest is minimal. This is necessary in order to increase the load density at this stage. The final component - restoration - occurs in the same way as in the first component.
The third stage is the improvement of the throw-down technique. It is noteworthy that the athlete with the first number must first fall from the throw of the second number, then immediately the second number must make his throw. Therefore, the third number first rolls the first number, and then the first one rolls the third, and so on. At this rate, the loaded number should fall and perform throws within one minute. Participants need to try to get up from the throw as quickly as possible and just as quickly perform their technical action. In this mode, each number must work out for one minute, fall and throw in turn in its four. The final component - restoration and preparation for the final stage - occurs in the same way as in the previous components. An increase in rest time is possible in order to fully restore HR and respiration.
The fourth stage is competitive wrestling in a standing position according to the "Conveyor belt" principle: all athletes must also remember their number and fight in a strictly assigned order. By analogy with the previous stages, the load is performed first on the participant with the first number. He goes out to fight the second, at this time the third and fourth are resting and waiting for their turn. The fight in a standing position lasts for one minute, after the end of time, the second number sits down, and the third number comes out to fight the first, then the first fights with the fourth, and so on. No time is allotted for the participant under the first number to rest: all this time he takes up space on the carpet. The loaded number must go through exactly two laps and fight all the numbers for six minutes of net time. After the end of the fight in the standing position, the first number goes to rest, and the second and third numbers appear on the carpet for competitive wrestling in the same mode. Now the load is made on the second number, respectively, the second fights the third, then the fourth, and so on in a similar way. The second must, like the first, go through two circles according to the principle of the "Conveyor" struggle and carry out a struggle for six minutes with each number. Thus, each number in the existing four will spend twelve minutes of pure fighting time.
The final part of the training complex "Conveyor" involves relaxing exercises to relax muscles and increase the flexibility of the body of athletes, which are carried out for 15 minutes.
Thus, we can note the non-standard nature of the training complex described above, which consists in group work, constant change of the enemy and the conditions of the struggle. The "Conveyor" complex must be used in order to develop strength endurance, speed abilities and technical and tactical mastery. The implementation of the modules of the complex is possible in training activities, since with a frequent change of partner, each athlete must adapt and find the optimal approach, use his own technical arsenal, matched to each opponent individually. This will help you to act variably in a real fight in a competition.
"Conveyor" is notable for its versatility: special wrestling tasks are built in such a way as to help athletes not only develop their physical qualities, but also to form a sense of collectivism and the ability to work in a team.
The strongest in a sports duel is the one who is the most psychologically prepared, who has a stable competitive motivation. such an athlete is focused on achieving success. The described training process implements different approaches in terms of organizing the training of highly qualified sambists at the stage of higher sportsmanship. In this case, the main core is pre-competition training. The result of its use is that the training complex "Conveyor" helps to increase the level of motivation of athletes to achieve sports results, which further contributes to a worthy representation of their country at major international competitions.
The uniqueness of the "Conveyor" training complex lies in the fact that this method of training sambists is not limited to certain tasks. The coach has the opportunity to individually select special stages in the main part, depending on what technical skills or physical conditions he wants to develop, improve or develop together with his athletes during the preparatory period of the competition.
This complex helps to assess the level of fitness in the pre-competition period of preparation for important starts. The main component of an athlete's fitness is psychological readiness, his ability to purposefully control his actions in a tough competitive struggle, the ability to voluntarily (consciously) form a pre-start state of "alertness" and prevent manifestations of "starting fever" and "starting apathy". In this case, the state of "sports form" is formed, which in the psychology of sports is characterized as "relative emotional stability". The "Conveyor" complex is as close as possible to competitive activity. In such conditions, athletes show their volitional qualities: purposefulness, decisiveness, perseverance, courage and self-control, and in conjunction with psychological training, the level of motivation of athletes also increases.
It is possible to test the "Conveyor" complex at training camps, since in such conditions high-level athletes gather, and then there is an opportunity to compete with potential rivals at the upcoming competitions. It is possible to organize the training process on the so-called "day of wrestling", when the strongest sambo wrestlers gather and arrange competitive fights among themselves. It is also planned to include the complex in the sambo wrestling training process at Yong In University. In order to create a competitive environment between students, it is necessary to form the readiness of athletes to overcome physical stress in the conditions of competitive activity.
As a result of the implementation of this unique complex, a clear system of organizing the educational and training process is formed. Athletes develop strong confidence in their strengths and capabilities to achieve victory in the upcoming tournaments. An optimally high level of aspirations is created, which is the basis of a person's focus on achieving success. The level of a sportsman's technical readiness is determined, wrestling skills of a motor action fulfillment are assessed taking into account the level of sportsmanship.
In connection with the above, it can be concluded that the improvement of the training process methodology using the "Conveyor" complex is the basis for achieving the desired sports results by highly qualified sambo athletes.
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