The article deals with the problem of using the means of folk pedagogy in the moral and aesthetic education of preschoolers and students. The authors analyze the views, approaches of scientists to the problems of ignorance of the traditions of their people in the modern world. The authors consider the problem of deep and scientifically grounded consideration of the peculiarities of regional culture in working with children to be urgent.
national traditions, ethnopedagogy, self-awareness, culture of the people, folklore, ethnocultural competence, polyethnic environment
Back in ancient Greece, Aristotle wrote about the all-round development of the child. Today it is an important goal of modern education. This goal can be achieved by successfully solving many educational problems. Among these educational tasks, a special place is occupied by issues of moral and aesthetic, as well as patriotic education of the younger generation.
In accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard of preschool education, the educational process has a specific direction towards “the development of norms and values adopted in society, social and emotional intelligence, emotional responsiveness, empathy; fostering a respectful attitude and a sense of belonging to one's family and to the community of children and adults in the Organization; the formation of positive attitudes towards various types of labor and creativity; formation of the foundations of safe behavior in everyday life, society, nature ”.
Experience shows that in modern society we are increasingly faced with the problems of ignorance of the traditions of our people among modern children and their parents. Many scientific papers have been published on this issue. For example, domestic scientists such as N.A. Vetlugina, A.V. Zaporozhets, A.N. Leontiev, N.I. Zagorenko, A.V. Zosimovsky, T.P. Gavrilova, B. S. Bratus, S. A. Kozlova, A. P. Usov, N.N. Poddyakov, V.A. Averin, V.I. Garbuzov and others. According to these scientists, children in our world are becoming more cruel, indifferent, material values dominate spiritual ones, they have ceased to understand and appreciate the aesthetic component of our society.
Naturally, we are looking for the main reason for this change. We believe that one of the reasons for the change is the disconnection of peoples from their national roots (culture, traditions). Unfortunately, there is such a phenomenon - people are far from the origins of their national culture. In solving this problem from early childhood, parents should impregnate their children with the peculiarities of the culture of their people and instill respect, understanding of neighboring cultures [30, p.156]. And the school will support this, because parents and teachers are partners in the upbringing and education of children. We solve the problem in cooperation.
Many teachers turned to the problem of using the means of folk pedagogy (Volkov G.N., Bogush A.M., Khanbikov Ya.I., Nigmatov Z.G., Shaimardanov R.Kh.) in moral and aesthetic education. According to scientists, in fairy tales, sayings, epics, riddles, songs, all folk wisdom and experience are collected, contributing to the development of personality, the assimilation of social norms, values of experience.
In pedagogy, various means of educating preschoolers have been identified. Among them Afanasyev A.N., Zhigulsky K. note the special significance of folk holidays as a synthesis of various types of folk art and traditions. Today, at a time when many educational programs have been developed, teachers of preschool institutions, in search of funds for effective activity, turn to the traditional folk heritage, seeing in it the primary source of morality, aesthetics and patriotism.
In the practical activities of teachers of a preschool educational organization, national traditions are perceived as an area of educational influences in a preschool educational organization. In modern conditions, there is an awareness of the spiritual foundations of the development of society. The problem of deep and scientifically grounded consideration of the peculiarities of regional culture in working with children is urgent.
Preschool teachers, teachers and scientists of the Elabuga Institute of the Kazan Federal University in their teaching activities are actively working in this direction. They conduct scientific and practical conferences, forums and methodological seminars for teachers of a preschool educational organization, develop joint action projects in the direction of ethno-regional education of preschool children.
The need to introduce a regional component is foreseen. The Law on Education of the Russian Federation speaks of the need for educational activities to introduce a regional component. In the content of individual sections of preschool education (familiarization with the environment, the formation of ideas about nature, holidays and entertainment, etc.), one can see the inclusion of native culture and national traditions.
In practice, teachers of a preschool educational organization organize various types of events, conferences, competitions on this issue. In Yelabuga, the republican competition of children's creativity "Мин бит татар малае!" "I am a Tatar!" The competition was held with the aim of identifying and developing young talents, fostering respect for their native language in children, attracting attention and introducing children and parents to the spiritual traditions and historical and cultural heritage of the Tatar people.
Such contests help to preserve the traditional culture of the Tatar people, the language and allow them to properly educate the younger generation. Provides natural familiarization of children with national traditions, affirms fundamental, spiritual and aesthetic values in their minds.
Also, in Kindergarten No. 38 "Golden Key" of the Elabuga Municipal District of the Republic of Tatarstan, the Competition "The Best Connoisseur of Folk Traditions and Cultures" was held within the framework of the All-Russian rally of creative teachers "Creativity, inspiration and skill - the unity of three!" dedicated to the Year of Native Languages and National Unity in the Republic of Tatarstan. The purpose of the competition: to identify and disseminate the innovative experience of teachers, to improve the scientific and methodological support of the educational process. More than 50 creative teachers took part in the competition in such nominations as: Best author's development "Knowledge of languages means having many keys to one lock"; Quiz for children (teachers) "Commonwealth of the Volga Peoples".
In kindergarten No. 39 "Kilechek" in Yelabuga, the Republican competition of oratory "Ellada - 2021" was organized for senior preschool children attending a speech therapy group. Interesting were the speeches of the orators-storytellers, who told the works of the authors as: D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak, V.Yu. Dragunsky, M.M. Prishvin, T. Kolomets, V. Oseava, etc. Carrying out such events contributes to the development in children of the ability to speak correctly, to feel more relaxed and confident. And such children are easier to make contact.
We believe that the introduction of a child to universal, civilizational values begins with the knowledge of culture, first of all, of his small homeland. The issues of cognition and appropriation of culture were studied by E.A. Baller, E.V. Ilyenkov, A.V. Kamenets, Yu.A. Lukin, E.Yu.Soloviev and others. Interest in the didactic aspect of acquainting children with a kindred culture and national traditions has grown.
In the work of A.B. Izmailov presents "Fairy-tale materials" in Russian folk pedagogy for the upbringing of preschoolers [24, p.256], in the study of MB. Kozhanova revealed the pedagogical process in a preschool educational institution in the context of the regional-ethnic orientation of education [27, p.201].
Such a process is considered as a specially organized interaction (in the form of assistance) of teachers and pupils in the implementation of the content of education using the ideas of folk pedagogy, as well as features, factors, means, methods of folk education in order to solve educational and educational tasks aimed at meeting the needs of society in a comprehensively developed personality [6, p.204-205].
The attention of researchers is also paid to the issues of preparing future educators for ethnological work in preschool institutions, for the work on mastering the ethnological vocabulary by older preschoolers (N.L. Emelyanova, Yu.N. Kosenko, L.S. Pletenetskaya) and its individual aspects: the formation of ethnocultural competence students of pedagogical institutes in a multiethnic environment [17, p.24] ethnopedagogical training.
In pedagogical science and preschool pedagogy, interest in national identity is increasing, attention is paid to the revival of folk traditions, the development and understanding of the role of one's nation, ethnos in the world historical process. The task of the teacher in the context of this problem includes the ability to predict and realize the potential of national traditions and customs; help to foster interest in the native culture and learn to be aware of oneself as the bearer of this culture [3, p.114].
The mechanism that makes it possible to include folk pedagogy in the modern educational process in a preschool educational organization is folk tradition, since it is tradition that expresses the essence of folk culture and its connection with social conditions; it still carries out the same educational and developmental functions. Ethnopedagogy clarifies the pedagogical capabilities of old customs in modern conditions and determines the appropriateness of new traditions and customs that contribute to the upbringing and development of the individual [11, p.112].
Education on folk traditions contributes to the formation of religious tolerance, interethnic tolerance. We believe it is extremely important that a new view of culture, as a unity of national, ethnic and regional, is emerging in modern philosophy. This can be explained, apparently, by the fact that not only general human life activity is recorded in culture, but also the qualitative uniqueness of historically formed specific territories is reflected.
The culture of Russia has developed in this multinational environment. Regional culture develops, feeding from two sources: internal self-development of national cultures and mutual influence, interaction, mutual penetration, but not the fusion of different cultures, but their creative mutual borrowing.
We believe that the main task of the kindergarten of the Russian cultural tradition is to lay the foundations of a spiritual and moral personality with an active life position and with creative potential, capable of self-improvement, harmonious interaction with other people. Traditions organize the connection of generations, they support the spiritual and moral life of peoples. The succession of elders and juniors is based precisely on traditions. The more diverse the traditions, the more spiritually richer the people are. Nothing unites people like traditions. Tradition contributes to the restoration of the now lost heritage, such restoration can be salutary for humanity.
Therefore, it is so important to develop a modern teacher's respect for traditions, a positive attitude towards them, a desire to support and preserve them.
In our study, the definition of "tradition" given by D.I. Vodzinsky: traditions are firmly established, inherited from previous generations and supported by the power of public opinion, forms of people's behavior and their relationships, or the principles by which universal human culture develops [52, p. 64].
Of all the traditions that influence the formation of personality, scientists assign a special role to educational traditions. L.I. Bozovic, L.S. Vygotsky argued that human development is carried out through the assimilation of all previous cultural experience. Based on the positions of B.N. Bessonov, N.K. Dmitriev, K.S. Davletov, A.M. Suleimanov, we considered folk holidays, folk games, folklore as means of ethnographic culture [7, p. 15].
The initial theoretical provisions for the development of the problem under study was the relationship: "education-culture-national culture-personality". According to N.A. Berdyaev, S.I. Hessen, the task of any education is to familiarize a person with the cultural values of science, art, morality, law, and economy.
Multicultural education of children should be carried out in three directions:
- information saturation (communication of knowledge about the traditions, customs of different peoples, the specifics of their culture and values, etc.);
- emotional impact (in the process of implementing the first direction - information saturation - it is important to evoke a response in the child's soul, "stir up" his feelings);
- behavioral norms (the knowledge gained by the child about the norms of relations between peoples, the rules of etiquette must be necessarily fixed in his own behavior) [31, p. 209-211].
The tasks of the teacher of a preschool educational organization are to reveal the spiritual and moral potential of the works and bring it to the child in an accessible form. We attach great importance to increasing the vocabulary of children, through a semantic explanation of unfamiliar words, their origin (etymology) and historical significance.
Thus, having studied the role and place of national traditions in the upbringing of children of the sixth year of life, we can state the following: In the content of individual sections of preschool education (acquaintance with the environment, the formation of ideas about nature, holidays and entertainment, etc.), the inclusion of native culture and national traditions can be seen.
In pedagogical science and preschool pedagogy, interest in national identity is increasing, attention is paid to the revival of folk traditions, the development and understanding of the role of one's nation, ethnos in the world historical process.
The task of the teacher in the context of this problem includes the ability to predict and realize the potential of national traditions and customs; help to develop an interest in the native culture and learn to be aware of oneself as a carrier of this culture. The mechanism that makes it possible to include folk pedagogy in the modern educational process at preschool educational institutions is folk tradition, which expresses the essence of folk culture and its connection with social conditions; it still carries out the same educational and developmental functions.
1. Androsova M. Folk game as a means of forming the readiness of preschoolers for speech communication / M. Androsova // Preschool education. 2017, no. 3. - P. 113-115.
2. Arkharova L. I. Education on folk traditions / L. I. Arkharova // Education of patriotism, friendship of peoples, religious tolerance. Materials of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference (Moscow, November 16-17, 2014). - M., 2014. - P. 204-205.
3. Baturina G. I., Kuzina T. F. Folk pedagogy: its educational opportunities in modern conditions / G. I. Baturina, T. F. Kuzina // Teacher. - 2016. - No. 1 (8). - P. 15-18.
4. Bogomolova M. I. International education of preschoolers: a textbook for students of pedagogical institutes in the specialty No. 2110 "Pedagogy and psychology (preschool)" / M. I. Bogomolova. - M.: Education, 2016. - 112 p.
5. Bondarevskaya E. V. Value foundations of personality-oriented education / E. V. Bondarevskaya // Pedagogy. - 2018. - No. 4. - P. 29-36
6. Kozlova S. A. Theory and methods of familiarizing preschoolers with social reality: Textbook. Manual / S. A. Kozlov. - M., 2013. - 330 p.
7. Korotkova E. L. Providing speech practice in the interaction of work on the development of dialogical and monologue speech. Reader on the theory and methodology of speech development in preschool children / Comp. M. M. Alekseeva. - M.: Academy, 2014. - P. 201–202.
8. Kulolaeva O. A. Gold grains / O. A. Kulolaeva. Methodical manual for the spiritual and moral education of older preschoolers. - Novokuznetsk: MOU DPO IPK, 2015. - 197 p.
9. Leontiev A. N. Problems of the development of the psyche / A. N. Leontiev. 2nd ed. - M., 2015. – 300 p.
10. Federal State Educational Standard of Preschool Education: approved by order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation dated October 17, 2013, No. 1155. Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. - Moscow: 2013.
11. Shvaiko G.S. Games, game exercises for the development of speech: a book for kindergarten teachers: from work experience. 3rd edition / G.S. Shvaiko. - Moscow: Publishing House of Education, 2013. - 64 p.