Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The article considers the current state of demographic processes in the Arctic territories of Russia. It is shown that the stable decline in the population as a result of the outflow of the population from the polar regions occurs due to a decrease in the attractiveness of the region and makes the macroregion especially vulnerable to global challenges. Indigenous minorities found themselves in a difficult choice: between the priority of intensive development of the existing natural resources of the north and the preservation of traditional living conditions and environmental management. The crisis state of the traditional sectors of the economy has led to an aggravation of social problems. Most of the rural population is unemployed and lives below the poverty line. The importance of finding the optimal ratio of state and market regulators in the social sphere is increasing in order to preserve basic social guarantees in the conditions of living in the difficult natural conditions of the North.

North-East of Russia, demography, migration, standard of living of the peoples of the North, population dynamics
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The relevance of the study of the demographic situation in the north-eastern regions of Russia in the current economic conditions is beyond doubt. Arctic issues are always relevant for Russia, since Arctic territories occupy 18% of the country's area, with less than 2% of the population of the Russian Federation, but more than 40% of the population of the entire world Arctic, and explored and forecast mineral resources make up most of the country's mineral resource base. The importance of the issue is becoming more acute today, in the context of the elevation of the Northern Policy to the category of national priorities, the intensification of the processes of development and launch of a large number of strategic projects.

For the Arctic territories, the situation itself has a twofold nature. On the one hand, the availability of natural resources that are significant not only for the Russian Federation, but also for other countries [4]. On the other hand, these territories of residence of ethnic small peoples with traditional activities that are important for their existence are in clear contradiction with the current state and prospects of development in market conditions of indigenous small peoples of the North (KMNS).

Out of 40 small-numbered peoples in 28 constituent entities of the Russian Federation, 9 Arctic regions are included in the Russian Arctic, which is slightly more than 80 thousand people out of 250 thousand indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North. By ethnic composition, these are Nenets, Chukchi, Khanty, Evenks, Selkups, Sami, Eskimos, Dolgans, Chuvans, Mansi, Veps, etc. some of them lead a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle associated with traditional occupations: reindeer husbandry, fishing, marine hunting, gathering (about 20 thousand people). The Eastern Arctic Economic Zone of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) consists of 13 municipalities: with 7.2% of the population of the republic. Chukotka is classified as a place of traditional residence and traditional economic activity of the indigenous peoples of the North of Russia. There are six indigenous peoples of Chukotka [6, 7]

         Discussion of the results

During the period 1990-2000, the population of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation decreased by 1.1 million people or by 12.1%. The largest outflow was observed in the CHAO and Nenets Autonomous District, in the Murmansk Region. By 2000, the CAO had lost about 64% compared to the number in 1990 [1, 4]. In the Russian sector of the Arctic, the degradation of the northern territories was developing, manifested in literally everything and, above all, in the destruction of industrial and social infrastructure, in the decline in the technical and economic level of still operating enterprises, in a sharp decline in the pace of preparation of the raw material base, in the regular disruption of the delivery of goods for production and the population, in the financial bankruptcy of payments and non-payment of wages, etc. Crisis phenomena in the economy, especially affected the demographic situation in the north of the region. In the absence of motivation, apathy spread among people, there was a sense of meaninglessness of life, the number of suicides among the indigenous population sharply increased. During this period, the Northerners experienced an unprecedented increase in alcoholism, many of them lost their work skills and life initiative. The result of the crisis phenomena was unemployment, social explosions and the outflow of population from northern cities and towns. The curtailment of production led to an outflow of skilled workers who could easily find a job in more attractive regions of the country in terms of climate and living conditions. During the post-Soviet period, only in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug the population decreased from 169 thousand people to 49.0 thousand people (3.5 times). At the beginning, the population decreased as a result of migration outflow, and since 1995, a decrease has been recorded due to natural attrition. From 1991 to 2018, the region lost 23.2% of its population [7] Since 1993, a high mortality rate has been established, characterizing the social state of society. The mortality rate of the indigenous population of the CHAO significantly exceeds the mortality rates of the entire population of Chukotka. However, according to general indicators of mortality, for example, in the CHAO from cardiovascular diseases has been and remains much lower in recent years than in the Russian Federation.

In the 1990s, in the Far East, as in all other territories, there was a decrease in the birth rate by more than 2 times. If in 1990 the total fertility rate in the Far East was 2.07, by 1999 it had decreased to 1.21 (the lowest level in the history of settlement of the region). Further, this indicator still maintains an upward trend, and in 2015 it amounted to 1.89. In areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, there was an increase in the birth rate, which was established at the level of 16-14%, higher than in the whole macroregion [5]. Since 2005 The indicators in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) correspond to the simple replacement of generations (1,8), Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2,2), Koryak Autonomous Okrug (1,9) children per woman. In the rural population of national formations, the change in the total fertility rate is especially noticeable: more than 2 children for every woman of fertile age.

The interrelation of childhood and future development is indicated among small indigenous peoples in family, marital, gender, cultural and other conditions and traditions of life. In areas with an ethnic population, a significant number of children born out of wedlock is noticeable in the birth rate structure, which can be explained by several reasons.

1. Unlike European ethnic groups, a significant number of births of children among women at young ages is associated with the established structure of reproduction among small-numbered peoples. Only the "right European values" have led to hypertrophic social consumerism, ignoring the problems of self-reproduction.

2. The number of ethnic minorities increases due to the instinct of self-preservation from extinction.

3. For indigenous peoples inherent in lower life expectancy, in this regard, all life cycles of the "compressed".

4. In Russia at birth and upbringing of children are 9 types of benefits, but they are also the parent capital, are not so significant for the rest of Russia, for the North-tions of regions to protect the family from declining living standards for child birth.

5. In the North, in conditions of hidden unemployment, the appearance of children among very young women in the Chao and Sakha (Yakutia) is associated with the problem of employment, the inability to receive vocational education near home, and the birth of children allows you to receive payments for their maintenance provided for by law.

6. Social benefits in the form of subsidies for utility payments, especially in urban areas, are intended to a greater extent for single mothers and they are significantly more than lump-sum payments (until 2020) at the birth of children. They are added together and a more significant amount is obtained, for which you can refuse to register a marriage.

7. The establishment of a modern type of reproduction among small ethnic groups, in view of their established life principles and values, conservation behavior in nature management, in contrast to consumer society. The planned economic growth in the development of fuel and energy resources, with the current system of income distribution, will not ensure an increase in the standard of living of indigenous ethnic groups.

According to the federal District, life expectancy is lower in the Chukotka Autonomous Area. As a result of the spread of undesirable phenomena, the average life expectancy of the indigenous population of the Arctic has decreased to 45 years. Representatives of the Northern nationalities in the 1990s lived on average 25 years less than the inhabitants of Russia and 35-40 years their life was shorter than that of people living in developed countries. An increase in life expectancy should be considered a positive moment: in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug: in 2005 58.48 years; 2012 - 60.79 years; in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) – 64.68 years, in 2012 – 67.93 years, respectively [2, 6].

The main part of the indigenous minorities live in rural areas, where traditional life-support industries - reindeer husbandry, marine, fishing, hunting are not supported, which does not allow them to have a permanent income. The majority of the rural population is unemployed and lives below the poverty line. The crisis state of the traditional sectors of the economy has led to an aggravation of social problems. The unemployment rate is 1.5-2 times higher than the average in the Russian Federation. The areas of their compact residence still have a high level of unemployment and poverty. The most problematic are identified in the polar regions: a low level of real monetary incomes of the population, with a high cost of living, transport remoteness, high cost of energy resources and electricity. The purchasing power of the income of the population of Chukotka is at the level of the average Russian value, which does not contribute to the influx of population. In the high level of average wages, district coefficients are laid down, removing which, real incomes will decrease by 3-4 times. There was an outflow of population from the region, a shortage of highly qualified labor resources, especially in the shortage of teachers, doctors, etc. Lump-sum payments for those who expressed a desire to come to work at a school or hospital (1,000,000 rubles) are ineffective. The same amount of payment is established for the middle, southern latitudes and polar territories.

At the same time, great importance is attached to the preservation of the national culture of the CMNS (art, crafts, rituals, traditions, beliefs and folklore). Such skills are transmitted and assimilated in the process of socialization. Children of the CMNS are the most socially and culturally vulnerable category of the population. [2] Social maladaptation of young people is developing, weak orientation to education, which has become paid, lack of work skills, early alcoholism, due to the loss of the traditional mechanism of their habitual life, way of life, culture have become an insurmountable obstacle. Polar regions, to a greater extent than other regions, need socialization in the context of universal informatization and the total spread of the Internet to relieve social tension; providing a standard of living several times higher than Russian indicators; obtaining high-quality education, at various levels, including additional.

Socio-demographic and medico-ecological problems of the small peoples of the Far North are mainly determined by the technogenic development of their territories, by the newly arrived population working in shifts. Exclusion of these territories from natural use by the indigenous population and environmental pollution, together with other social factors, contribute to an increase in natural mortality among the population for "industrial reasons". Globalization, which erases economic, political, socio-cultural differences between regions, affects the ways of interaction between childhood and society, as well as indirectly on the physical and mental state of children, through the structural dynamics of age-related changes in the population.

The main conclusions

In modern economic conditions, the importance of finding the optimal ratio of state and market regulators in the social sphere is increasing in order to preserve basic social guarantees in conditions of increasing budget constraints and commercialization of its institutions. The role of sulfur surcharges and district coefficients in stimulating the influx of able-bodied population has decreased, and their values have decreased with the abolition of regional surcharges of the Soviet period (Yakutia). Weak correlation of poverty with employment. Among the long-term trends, it can be assumed that one of the most important factors determining the alignment and interaction of various forces in the XXI century will be the growth of geo-economic contradictions in the Arctic associated with its resource potential [4]. According to some estimates, numerous policy documents adopted to improve the demographic situation – in the country as a whole, in the Far East, in its Arctic zone - were not effective enough [1]. For three decades, many decisions have been made to improve in general and in the northern regions especially to stop the outflow of population, but a positive result has not yet been achieved. All promising areas of Arctic development will depend on demographic processes, opportunities to create their own demographic resources for economic growth. Only if the government's actions are aimed at introducing an optimal model of migration and demographic behavior for the Far East, one can hope for a positive development of demographic potential in the marginal territories of the Russian Federation, demographic priorities of social policy, and move from quantitative indicators of the birth rate to qualitative ones - ensuring high living standards of the population.


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