In the article, based on field expedition work from 2019 - 2021 in the national settlements of the village of Kondon (Solnechny dis- trict), the village of Belgo, the village of Verkhnyaya Econ (Komsomolsky district), Khabarovsk Krai, the author considers effective means of national education of Nanai children. Certain social ideas, values, customs, rituals, and norms of behavior are important elements of national culture. Which are transmitted and assimilated through education and become part of the tradition. Over the past decades, we can observe the transformation of the cultural space, including national holidays, dances, museum work, festi- vals, exhibitions of arts and crafts.
national education, traditions, Nanais, ritual, custom, folk- lore, culture
The Nanai culture was formed under the influence of such factors as social, political, economic, transforming over a long time. Regardless of the national characteristics of culture, in Soviet times, as a result of the reforms carried out, there were significant changes in everyday life, material production, family and marriage relations, aimed at introducing new symbols, rituals, changing the values of the Nanai people. Serious transformations have also taken place in schools, which have affected the education system and educational work.
An important problem in the upbringing of the younger generation of the Amur Region remained issues related to the transmission of the heritage of folk culture, the system of guidelines for upbringing. In the past, it was the family that acted as the main institution of socialization, the connection with which a person felt throughout his life. Traditional education, the transfer of experience from generation to generation, is one of the conditions for the stability of everyday life and the key to success in fishing and hunting. In the family, the upbringing of children strictly corresponded to the sex and age of the child, where everyone knew their responsibilities from early childhood. In the upbringing of boys, the main thing was the development of traditional crafts, for girls, housekeeping. (Fig. 1)
Physical education plays an important role in social life of the Nanai. Traditionally, children and adolescents played competitive games with a bow, developing the skill of a fisherman. The main provisions of trade etiquette were mastered in the process of one of the forms of traditional knowledge - oral folk art. In the folklore texts "Telungu" or "Nimgan" morality arising from the content of the narrative was emphasized. Young hunters applied these findings to their own lives. Among the Kondon Nanais, shooting was carried out at a ground target and the range of the arrow was taken into account. Also, the competition was held in long jump, high jump, with a pole. The Condonts had: a double jump; jump on one leg from a place with landing on both legs; triple jump. For the Nanai, these competition games were not only entertainment, but also a systematic training of the entire musculoskeletal system.
Physical education with elements of Nanai games is practiced in the gym, shaping the national consciousness of the child, fostering a sense of respect for national traditions through games such as: winter game - "Thueri Kupin", jumping according to the rules - "Tomyan", rope game - "Toptodi". From a survey of respondents, we found out that a significant problem is the development of modern models of sports equipment for practicing national sports, since implements and equipment are not sold in specialized stores, they need to be ordered only from masters of traditional crafts.
Additional extracurricular activities in the villages are carried out by means of fine arts, music, choreography. (Fig. 2)
For example, amateur dance performances of collectives reflecting the legends and customs of the people of various contents show a person's striving for harmony with nature and beauty. On the basis of folklore, the leaders try to convey to the audience through dance the significance of the cult of nature, shamanism, as the basis of the most ancient ideas and beliefs of the Nanai. Folk dance is an integral part of spiritual culture, a necessary component of ethnic identity, which occupies an important place in the life of every village. The ensembles annually perform at Krai events such as the "Tambourine of Friendship", "Summer Festival". On the basis of rural schools, they actively participate in socially significant events in the region. According to the leaders, amateur performances today are experiencing a modern influence, which makes it possible to interweave traditional and modern forms and affect the dance repertoire. Elements of the daily life of the Nanai are imitated by dance, through musical folklore, which is represented by songs in the Nanai language or recorded in a modern arrangement. The household sphere for folk dances serves as a kind of tool that allows you to reproduce the atmosphere of the surrounding life. So the wedding ceremony with dressing the bride, demonstrating a triple bow to parents, guests, each other is transmitted through the "dance of the bride". Dance to the sounds of tambourines "Tupigori", which is based on national games with a rope, a ball.
In the repertoire of amateur performances of the Nanais, a large layer is made up of performances with stories from holidays, songs, legends. Most of this group consists of "song dances". Illustrating the song with dance has survived to this day and has become widespread.
At present, national dances have a modern original reading, they are performed to modern musical instruments, while the originality and spirituality are carefully preserved and passed on to descendants. The preservation and development of the traditional culture of the Amur ethnic groups, respect for the origins, care for the present increases the significance of the work of the Nanai ensembles.
The result of the study of national villages showed that the studied programs using various forms of work by children in school, kindergarten include national holidays, museum work, festivals, exhibitions of arts and crafts. It turned out that children would like to further study the history and culture of the Nanai people, where the transfer of experience to the younger generation takes place through educational institutions, culture, where, based on referring to the origins of traditional Nanai culture, history, language, folklore, arts and crafts, they develop a sense of national pride.
Fig 1. Museum at the secondary school of the Belgovsky rural settlement of the Komsomolsk municipal district of the Khabarovsk Krai. Photo by the author
Fig 2. Nanai family 2021. Belgovskoe rural settlement of the Komsomolsk municipal district, Khabarovsk Krai. Photo by the author
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