This article presents the results of a study of a psychological and pedagogical program to identify conditions for the successful integra- tion of high school students into adulthood.
High school students, adolescents, sociability, self-regula- tion, anxiety, conflict, self-organization, competencies, support
After analyzing the scientific psychological and pedagogical literature on the research problem, we found that a fairly large number of scientists studied self-regulation, self-organization, conflict and sociability.
For example, such scientists as V.M. Bekhterev and L.I. Bozovic, L.S. Vygotsky, M.I. Dyachenko, L.A. Kandybovich, A.A. Ukhtomsky, M. Wertheimer, K. Dunker, K. Koffke, W. Koeller and others. It was they who stood at the origins of the definition of the main theoretical and methodological approaches and principles of self-organization.
Domestic and foreign scientists (G. Allport, G. Rogers, B.G. Ananiev, S.L. Rubinstein and others) believe that developed abilities for self-regulation improve emotional self-control, form purposefulness and endurance, reduce anxiety, a tendency to inner problems and self-doubt, which ultimately leads to increased performance.
The relationship between personality and self-regulation was considered by such researchers as K. Rogers, G. Allport, A. Bandura and others.
Speaking about communicability, it should be noted that many researchers (K. Shannon, N. Wiener, Z. Freud, K. Jung, G. M. Andreeva, N. A. Vagapova and others) are similar in their opinions: that communication in the context human relations is an interactive energy-informational exchange between two or more subjects. This means that during communication, a system of three interrelated elements is formed: two subjects of communication and a communicative channel.
Many scientists (Z. Freud, A. Adler, E. Fromm, G. Sullivan, K. Horney, K. Levin, L.A. Petrovskaya, A.G. Kovalev, A.Ya. Antsupov and others) believe that the ability to conflict is one of the valuable skills for a person, a necessary stage of socialization and adaptation, which expands a person's consciousness with the help of information about the possibilities and options for overcoming contradictions, as well as the presence of other interests and views of the world.
In our work, we have revealed the content and described concepts such as:
- psychological and pedagogical support is the process of interaction between a specialist and mentally healthy people, aimed at the formation and development of personal and social skills, as well as at providing psychological support in difficult life situations;
- integration into adulthood is the unification of the individual with the society of other people, while maintaining their individuality and uniqueness;
- competence in psychology is defined as knowledge, abilities, skills, as well as ways of performing activities, achieving goals, the ability to apply the necessary skills in interpersonal, professional and life communication in general (A.L. Zhuravlev, N.F. Talyzina, R. K. Shakurov, A.I. Shcherbakov, L.M. Mitina and others);
- competence in pedagogy is considered as an integral system of knowledge, skills and abilities for professional activity (A.A. Rean, Ya.L. Kolominskiy, V.V. Trunaev).
To be competent means to have the ability in the right situation to show the right knowledge, skills and abilities, that is, competence.
Having identified the necessary conditions and competencies for the successful integration of high school students into adulthood, a program of psychological and pedagogical support was developed.
For the program of psychological and pedagogical support of integration into adult life, we carried out the entrance and final diagnostics of high school students using the following methods:
1) Ch.D. Spielberger and Yu.L. Khanin scale for determining the level of personal and situational anxiety;
2) Methods for researching the qualitative features of communicative and organizational inclinations (COI) V.V. Sinyavsky, V.A. Fedoroshin;
3) Diagnostics of personality behavior in a conflict situation, questionnaire "Style of behavior in conflict" K. Thomas;
4) Test questionnaire of self-organization of activity (QSOA) in adaptation by Mandrikova E.Yu.
After the program, we got the following results:
1. As a result of the research according to the methodology "Ch.D. Spielberger, Yu.L. Khanin to determine the level of personal and situational anxiety" we see, we see that out of 19 people, 7 people have decreased the level of situational anxiety (12 people), the guys do not experience stress, they are not worried about anything. This suggests that such people can still put off important things until the last moment and this will not bother them. It takes more time to develop a sense of responsibility towards oneself and others, the skill of self-regulation.
The average level of anxiety has 37 people (66%), before the program - 26 people (47%). That is, these people are able to constructively assess the current stressful situation without showing an excessive emotional reaction. At an average level of anxiety, high school students can realistically assess their strengths and deal effectively with stress. He mastered the skill of self-regulation by 11 people more, without losing a sense of responsibility in front of the goals, tasks and deeds.
A high level of situational anxiety has 21% of high school students (12 people), before the program - 34% of respondents (20 people). This suggests that the number of people who experience very strong emotional excitement in a stressful situation, especially when it comes to assessing their competencies and personality in general, has decreased by 8. But 12 high school students, in the circumstances that excite them, still take everything close to heart. These guys need more time to master the skill of self-regulation.
According to the comparative results of the study of personal anxiety, we see that 48% of the subjects (27 people) have a low level, before the program - 25% (16 people). That is, there are 11 more high school students who have effectively mastered the skills of self-regulation, are in a calm and relaxed state, confident in their strengths and capabilities.
The average level of personal anxiety is present in 46% of high school students (26 people), before the program - in 58% of the subjects (32 people). We see that there are 6 fewer high school students who experience intrapersonal anxiety and doubt their strengths and abilities. But there are still guys who emotionally react to those situations that affect their personality the most.
A high level of personal anxiety is present in 6% of respondents (3 people), before the program 12% (7 people). We see that there are 2 times less high school students who are inclined to express their emotions vividly in stressful situations. Adolescents who showed high results after the program could be in a stressful psychological state at the time of the diagnosis.
Figure 1. Data illustrating the difference in indicators of input and final diagnostics according to the method of Ch.D. Spielberger - Yu.L. Khanina
2. As a result of research on the methodology for researching the qualitative characteristics of communicative and organizational inclinations (COI), V.V. Sinyavsky, V.A. Fedoroshin, we see that high school students have improved communication skills. Most adolescents do not get lost in a new environment, they constantly strive to expand their circle of acquaintances, show initiative in communication. At the same time, high school students try to be tactful when interacting with others.
The level of organizational skills also increased among senior pupils in the process of implementing psychological and pedagogical support. The guys know how to correctly allocate their time for training, circles and personal life. We learned to plan our activities in advance and understood why it is so important. Many gladly began to engage in social activities that are interesting for them, they are able to make decisions on their own in a difficult situation.
Figure 2. Comparison of indicators of input and final diagnostics by the level of communicative and organizational skills
Thus, improving communication skills and self-organization will help high school students find a common language with people of different ages, they will be able to express their thoughts more clearly, to defend their point of view constructively. Teenagers will be able to do a lot, not experience the stress of uncertainty and multitasking, as they have learned to rank cases according to the degree of importance and urgency.
3. As a result of research using the methodology "Style of behavior in conflict" by K. Thomas before and after the program, we see that the preferred type of behavior in conflict was cooperation, it is chosen by 32% of the subjects. Also, high school students began to strive more often to compromise in disputable situations (20%).
The choice of the strategy of behavior in the conflict as a competition decreased from 46 to 27%. It is important for adolescents to prove their case at any cost, perhaps in the future, the strategy of behavior in the conflict will change. Now, due to the peculiarities of adolescence, this strategy is more pronounced in such children.
In general, comparing the results, high school students mastered the skill of resolving conflict situations in constructive ways and expanded their knowledge about what types of behavior in conflicts occur.
4. As a result of the study using the methodology "Test questionnaire of self-organization of activity (QSOA) in adaptation of Mandrikova E.Yu." we see that adolescents have improved such indicators as: orderliness, purposefulness, perseverance, fixation, self-organization and orientation towards the future. This suggests that the children have mastered the skills of organizing personal and study time.
After the program, we identified improvements in such competencies as: self-regulation; communication and organizational skills; constructive types of behavior in conflict situations; self-organization skills.
To identify differences between the results of the input and final diagnostics, we used the nonparametric statistical test, the Mann-Whitney U test. With its help, we proved that there are differences between the entrance diagnostics of high school students and the final one after the program.
Using the nonparametric method "Spearman's rank correlation coefficient", we identified relationships in the following methods:
1. In the methodology "Ch.D. Spielberger, Yu.L. Khanin Scale to determine the level of personal and situational anxiety "and the method of researching the qualitative features of the communicative and organizational inclinations "COI" by V.V. Sinyavsky, V.A. Fedoroshin, we identified the following relationships:
- situational anxiety, and communicative and organizational inclinations;
- personal anxiety, and communicative and organizational inclinations.
2. In the methodology "Ch.D. Spielberger, Yu.L. Khanin Scale for determining the level of personal and situational anxiety "and the methodology" Diagnostics of personality behavior in a conflict situation, questionnaire "Style of behavior in conflict" K. Thomas "identified the following relationships:
- between situational anxiety and the type of behavior in the conflict "Competition";
- between personal anxiety and types of behavior in the conflict "Competition", "Cooperation".
3. In the methodology "Ch.D. Spielberger, Yu.L. Khanin Scale for determining the level of personal and situational anxiety "and the methodology" Test questionnaire of self-organization of activities (QSOA) in the adaptation of Mandrikova E.Yu." we identified the following relationships:
- there is a relationship of situational anxiety with the scales "Plannedness", "Fixation", "Self-organization", "Orientation to the present";
- there is a relationship between personal anxiety and the scale "Orientation to the present."
4. In the research methodology of the qualitative features of the communicative and organizational inclinations "COI" V.V. Sinyavsky, V.A. Fedoroshin and the methodology "Diagnostics of personality behavior in a conflict situation, the questionnaire "Style of behavior in conflict" by K. Thomas", the following relationships were identified:
- there is a relationship between the propensities for communication and organizational skills with competition.
5. In the methodology "Diagnostics of personality behavior in a conflict situation, the questionnaire "Style of behavior in conflict" by K. Thomas" and the methodology "Test questionnaire of self-organization of activity (QSOA) in adaptation by E.Yu. Mandrikova" there are the following relationships:
- the type of behavior in the conflict "Competition" with the scales "Fixation" and "Self-organization";
- the type of behavior in the conflict "Adaptation" with the scale "Purposefulness";
- the type of behavior in the conflict "Compromise" with the scales "Fixation", "Self-organization" and "Present orientation";
- the type of behavior in the conflict "Avoidance" with the scales "Fixation", "Purposefulness" and "Plannedness";
- the type of behavior in the conflict "Cooperation" and the scale "Orientation to the present."
Thus, one way or another, the development of these competencies is interrelated.
Thanks to our work with teachers and parents of high school students, we helped them realize how important it is to create safe psychological and pedagogical conditions to support the integration of high school students into adulthood.
In the process of implementing the program, we faced the following problems:
1) Adolescents are closed to other peers, it takes time for them to get used to informal work and imbued with confidence in the psychologist;
2) Often, at the beginning of the lesson, the schoolchildren have resistance to work for the first 7 minutes, because they come tired after school, hungry and want to go home. It is necessary to allow them to fulfill their minimum needs, ask about their mood, communicate, and only then directly carry out the exercises;
3) Not all guys are included in group work. This is most likely due to the fact that there are many teenagers in the group, so they think there is an opportunity to go unnoticed. In the future, it is necessary to divide the class into 2 subgroups for this program;
4) The presence of a teacher in the classroom during the training. The teacher disturbs the interaction of the psychologist-students with his remarks and comments, as well as attempts to control discipline. In the future, during the work of a psychologist, there should be no teacher in the classroom;
5) Most teachers have a rather negative attitude towards students, so burnout prevention trainings were useful for them.
So, the goal and objectives of our work have been achieved. After analyzing the scientific psychological and pedagogical literature, revealing the content of the concepts of "competence", "competence", "psychological and pedagogical support", "integration", identifying the necessary conditions for the integration of high school students into adult life and developing a program for psychological and pedagogical support of older adolescents.
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