The article analyzes the differences between the richness of language and the richness of speech used in oral and written communication and their relationship with the codification of literary norms. The role of lexical synonyms as one of the means of forming the skills of speech culture is also considered.
richness of language, richness of speech, diversity of speech, synonyms
At each stage of language development, under the influence of the development of society, extralinguistic factors, new directions and new aspects arise that require analysis of changes, new modifications in the language. It should be noted that the main provisions on the theory and practice of the Kazakh culture of speech, the problems of orthology are laid down in the works of leading scientists of Kazakh linguistics - A.Baitursynov, K.Zhubanov, M.Balakaev, R.Syzdyk and representatives of their scientific schools. Among the strategic goals of language construction in the Kazakh society, ensuring the unification of the norms of the modern Kazakh literary language through the intensification of scientific and applied research and the implementation of their results is of particular relevance.
First of all, let's focus on the definition of the concepts of "richness of language" and "richness of speech". One of the important criteria for distinguishing the wealth and poverty of speech is considered to be the "number of words". The richest lexical fund of the Kazakh language is listed as much as possible in dictionaries compiled by corresponding scientists. In total, the 15-volume "Dictionary of the Kazakh literary language", published in 2011, contains more than 150 thousand names of words and phrases. As well as lexicographic achievements of the Kazakh language: ten-volume "Explanatory Dictionary of the Kazakh language" (1974-1986); "Phraseological dictionary of the Kazakh language" (1977); Persian-Kazakh explanatory dictionary (1986); two-volume "Arabic-Kazakh explanatory Dictionary" (1984-1989); one-volume "Dictionary of the Kazakh language" (1999);"Kazakh-Russian dictionary" (2003); "Regional Dictionary of the Kazakh language" (2005); "Dictionary of synonyms of the Kazakh language" (2005), etc. But the richness of language is only the basis, the basis for the richness of speech. The wealth of speech of each native speaker is the fruit of his personal "savings", and the savings earned in the process of active mastery of speech. The richness of speech is achieved only by a conscious desire to comprehend new means of language for the individual and their active development - the desire to diversify one's speech, use the means that language gives us, to comprehend its beauty and possibilities in the process of improving one's speech. One person is not able to own and use the full richness of the language, but each of us in one way or another draws from this treasury, common to speakers of the same language.
The vocabulary of an individual depends on a number of reasons (the level of his general culture, education, profession, age, etc.), so it is not a constant value for any native speaker. Scientists believe that a modern educated person actively uses about 10-12 thousand words in oral speech, and 20-24 thousand in written speech. The passive stock, including those words that a person knows, but practically does not use in his speech, is about 30 thousand words. These are quantitative indicators of the richness of language and speech" [1, 3]
Language is realized in speech, speech is an external manifestation of language, a verbal means of communication. The means of transmitting information with the help of words are verbal, and with the help of signs, gestures, facial expressions, poses, gaze – non-verbal. The mastery of linguistic means, the richness of language is a necessary condition for the development of human thinking and communication"  The basis of the speech richness of each native speaker is linguistic richness, or the diversity of linguistic units of each level – phonetic, lexical, word-formation, morphological and syntactic.
In T.V. Zherebilo's dictionary, the term "richness of speech" is defined as "richness of speech is one of the communicative qualities of speech, based on the variety of linguistic signs included in the structural unit of speech, the maximum possible saturation of it with different, non-repetitive means of language necessary to express meaningful information" [3, 50].
The richness of a language is judged not only by the number of words, but also by their ambiguity. I.B. Golub writes that "different meanings of a word expand the boundaries of its use in speech" [4, 36]. The linguist V.N. Golovin also gives a more detailed definition in his works on the richness of speech: the RICHNESS of SPEECH or the DIVERSITY of SPEECH is one of the Communicative qualities of speech, characterized by a variety of vocabulary, the absence of repetitive constructions (tautologies), the use of lexical and syntactic synonymy (in this regard, lexical and syntactic Richness of speech are distinguished) [5, 207].
Kazakh linguist N.Uali in his work on the culture of speech of the Kazakh language, supporting the diversity of vocabulary, also adds that the richness of speech is a quality that indicates a high level of speech skill and is a prerequisite for successful communication in different situations. The richness of speech is contrasted with its poverty (monotony), clutter and littering. For example, it is necessary to avoid repetition in the text of words of the same root or similar in meaning (the image depicted, combining together, etc.) [6, 45].
The richest source of replenishment of the vocabulary of the language is synonymy. Synonyms help to avoid unnecessary repetitions. Synonyms, differing in shades of meaning and stylistic coloring, allow you to formulate a thought with extreme accuracy, give speech a colloquial or bookish character, express a positive or negative attitude to what is being said.
And also in the preface of the dictionary of synonyms of the Kazakh language it says that Synonyms are one of the indicators of the richness of the language, the treasure of the vocabulary. to what extent each language develops, its richness and spontaneity, artistry are expressed in synonyms [7, 3].
In the dictionary of synonyms of the Kazakh language, each word has at least two synonyms, sometimes their number can reach up to fifteen. For example, sekіru-qarğu-yrşu-yrğu-orğu-şorşu, sözuar – sözşeŋ – söileuіk – söilempaz, selqos – enjar – sülesoq – salğyrt – samarqau – boiküiez, sotqar – sodyr – būzaqy – qiяŋqy – sotanaq – būzyq – beibastyq, kіşkentai – tittei – bittei – barmaqtai – qūrtymdai – qūrtaqandai – qūrttai – qyldai – qyldyryqtai – mitіmdei – zäredei – şyntaqtai – şüikіmdei [7, 23].
Synonymic means of language contribute to the formation of speech culture skills to a large extent, and lexical synonyms play the most important role here. Analyzing the synonymic relations that make up a significant part of the lexico-semantic system, in our opinion, it is very important to distinguish between language and speech norms. In the field of the lexical system, the dominant role belongs to the semantics of lexical units, and since there are a huge number of polysemous words in the language, there is a problem of correctness, semantic accuracy and stylistic relevance of the word and utterance. Correct word usage in a broad sense is the most essential link of high speech culture. It is this, combined with the correct pronunciation, stress and correct use of grammatical forms in speech, that determines the accuracy, literacy and expressiveness of the language . Sinonimy alp-alpauyt, atqyş-mergen, belsenu-qūlşynu differ in shades of meaning.
In each functional style, the richness of speech manifests itself in different ways. It should be noted that in the language of fiction, the richness of speech gets the most complete manifestation. Talented writers are more able to achieve liveliness, clarity, colorfulness, since they possess the art of artistic words and the ability to correctly use the expressive means of language. And also the richness of speech is manifested in the journalistic style.
The richness of speech is assessed as the dignity of speech only if the language means are used expediently and in accordance with the functional orientation of speech. The main thing is to master the mastery of the word and use it in accordance with the communication situation.
The richness of speech ‒ this is a variety of different means of language and speech and ways of using them. Therefore, in relation to this quality of speech, it is difficult to talk about norms. In fact, these are not norms, but recommendations, which consist primarily in not disturbing its harmony on the basis of knowledge of all sources of the richness of speech, and not forgetting that the use of each means should be appropriate. Thus, the peculiarity of professional business speech is that in some genres (for example, in contracts, instructions), the accuracy of word usage, taking into account the slightest nuances in the selection and construction of sentences is much more important than diversity in the use of speech tools. And in oral speech, the most important thing is the momentary use of the tool, which is why there is such a large percentage of "ready-made" expressions and phrases - cliches, cliches that "come to the rescue" when there is no opportunity to think and choose a better option. Enriching speech, it is necessary to know the measure in the use of speech units belonging to a different style, for example, to include conversational elements in scientific, journalistic or official business speech should be very careful, in accordance with the requirements of the relevance of speech. It should be emphasized that sometimes diversity can degenerate into a lack of speech. So, the abundance of adjectives intended to decorate speech, in some cases complicates its perception.
The main criterion for assessing compliance / non-compliance with the norms regarding the richness of speech is the expediency / inexpediency of using certain means in certain combinations with mandatory consideration of the specifics of the communication situation. Thus, both diversity and monotony can become a virtue or a disadvantage of speech, therefore, expediency should always be the main criterion when choosing certain means. If the use of various linguistic and speech means is appropriate, then it is important to strive for harmony when using them, and therefore richness as a virtue of speech always assumes that its author will enrich his statement with other advantages: relevance, accuracy, logic, accessibility, correctness, expressiveness, etc. The dictionary of the Kazakh language is constantly being enriched with new words. The diversity and originality of the Kazakh language allows everyone to make their speech rich and original. It should be remembered: gray speech filled with verbal cliches does not cause the necessary associations in the minds of listeners. Poverty, dullness, monotony of language are associated with poverty, dullness and not originality of thought.
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