In the conditions of the information society, the problem of formation and development of the communicative competence of a mod- ern teacher is actualized. Currently, communication is transformed from a factor accompanying the activity of a teacher into a progressively significant category that de- termines the nature, significance and effectiveness of pedagogical activity. The article provides a retrospective analysis of the theoretical provi- sions on the communicative competence of the teacher and the three sides of communication, developed in the works of A.A. Leontiev, A.N. Leontiev B.F. Lomov, according to which the following sides of communication are distinguished: communicative (information exchange), interactive (interac- tion) and perceptual (perception and cognition of each other, establish- ment of mutual understanding).
teacher, competence, communication, competence, empa- thy, communicative competence
The emergence of new goals and values in society causes a constant increase in the requirements for education and teachers.
In modern conditions, society needs not just highly qualified teachers, but competent teachers with a high level of communication skills.
The essence of pedagogical activity in the conditions of the information society is communication with students, organization of interpersonal interaction. Therefore, the basis of the professionalism of a modern teacher is his communicative competence. A teacher who does not have a sufficient level of communicative competence is not able to implement personality-oriented educational technologies, is not ready to flexibly manage the educational process.
In order to scientifically substantiate the essence, structure and content of the communicative competence of a modern teacher, it is necessary to conduct a retrospective analysis of the development of this problem.
The concept of "communicative competence" was introduced by D. Himes and meant knowledge of the language, understood as the ability to choose options due to situational, social or other factors.
In the process of developing this concept, it has been significantly expanded and supplemented. The essence and structure of "competence" as a psychological and pedagogical category have been substantiated in numerous works of such Russian scientists as B.G. Ananyev, A.A. Bodalev , L.S. Vygotsky, I.A. Zimnaya, A.A. Leontiev, A.N. Leontiev, B.F. Lomov , A.V. Khutorskoy and others.
The methodological basis for communicative competence is the theory of the three sides of communication, developed by domestic psychologists A.A. Leontiev, A.N. Leontiev, B.F. Lomov.
According to this theory, communication has three sides of its manifestation: communicative, interactive, perceptual (Fig. 1).
Figure 1- Sides of the communication process
The communicative side of communication consists in the exchange of information, the interactive side of communication involves the interaction of people in the process of interpersonal relationships, the perceptual side of communication manifests itself through people's perception and evaluation of themselves, other people and social communities.
The communicative side of communication is carried out in the process of verbal communication with the help of speech: external and internal, written and oral, dialogic and monological, as well as in the process of non-verbal communication with the help of kinesics by means of gestures (gestures), facial expressions (facial muscles), pantomimics (body movements) and visual communication (eye contact).
The interactive side of communication, or understanding it as interaction, is connected with the fact that communication is always organized in the course of people's joint activities, about it, and it is in this process that people need to exchange both information and actions themselves (A.A. Leontiev, B.F. Lomov , etc.). As B.F. Lomov notes, in the process of communication, an individual can influence the motive, goal, program, decision-making, the performance of individual actions and their control, i.e., all components of his partner's activity, in connection with which there is mutual regulation and correction of behavior.
In the conditions of communication, the regulatory function of the psyche manifests itself. Through communication, an individual gets the opportunity to regulate not only his own behavior, but also the behavior of other people, and at the same time experience regulatory influences from their side. It is in the process of mutual regulation that phenomena characteristic of joint activities are formed and manifested: compatibility of people, which may relate to different psychological properties and have different levels, a common style of activity, synchronization of actions, etc.
The interactive side of communication is implemented using various methods and approaches: personal, activity, competence, project, situational, etc.
The perceptual side of communication is the process of perceiving and knowing each other, establishing mutual understanding.
This side of communication is realized through the mechanisms of identification, empathy, reflection, evaluation and self-assessment.
The main theoretical positions of Russian scientists on the essence and structure of communicative competence are as follows:
- competence is a manifestation of the unity of knowledge, skills, skills, methods of activity, personality traits that allow a person to act independently, take responsibility for the assigned task, a person's ability to establish relationships with other people, a special form of activity of the subject of activity;
- communicative competence includes a set of knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for active activity and correct behavior in society, it determines the ability to purposefully use speech and non-speech means of communication to solve socio-economic, political, pedagogical and other tasks;
- in the process of communication, not only the demonstration of the communicative qualities of a person is carried out, but also their further development, a person develops as a person and as a subject of activity; communication is not only a significant factor, but also a condition for the development of personality, etc.
We believe that in order to clarify the concept of "communicative competence", we should turn to the modern interpretation of the components of this concept: "communication" and "competence".
Currently, communication is understood as "communication, the transfer of information from person to person, a specific form of interaction between people in the process of their cognitive and labor activity, carried out mainly with the help of language (less often with the help of other sign systems)" [8, p.350].
In the social aspect, communicative competence is defined as "the orientation of a person in various communication situations, based on the knowledge and sensory experience of an individual; the ability to interact effectively with others through understanding oneself and others with constant modification of mental states, interpersonal relationships and conditions of the social environment" [9, p. 124].
The communicative competence of a teacher is largely determined by "makings - innate anatomical and physiological features that form the natural basis for the development of certain abilities. Thus, the features of the speech centers of the brain directly affect speech abilities"[2, p. 119]. Therefore, the makings are prerequisites for the successful development of communicative competence. The makings largely determine the level of students' communicative competence.
For example, the presence of autism in a young person – "a mental state characterized by the predominance of a closed inner life, loss of contact with reality and interest in reality, lack of desire for communication" [8, p.58] does not allow him to carry out effective pedagogical activity and is a contraindication to this activity.
An extroverted type of temperament (sanguine or choleric) is most preferable for a teacher. He should have developed perceptual qualities: observation, attentiveness, attention switching, the ability to read the face.
The teacher should be characterized by empathy – the ability to understand the mental state of another, to empathize, to grieve, to rejoice.
Communicative competence is the basic component, the core of the professional culture of a modern teacher.
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