The article is devoted to the problem of improving the meth- ods and technologies for the development of the speech of schoolchildren by means of paintings. Against the background of historical processes that form the peculiarities of teaching the Russian language and the develop- ment of speech, the author analyzes the didactic resources of psychologi- cal and pedagogical support for the activities of students involved in the process of motivated active cognitive activity aimed at the development of Russian speech.
psychological and pedagogical support, the development of Russian speech, cognitive activity, perception and understanding of "oneself", the aesthetic world of a teenager, a work of art, painting
The issues of the development of students' speech by means of works of painting in the methodology of teaching the Russian language are traditionally relevant. Already in the 19th century, the positions of teachers, writers, and public figures were determined, who recognized the need to include work on a painting in the system of studying the Russian language, developing speech (K.D. Ushinsky, L.N. Tolstoy, etc.). The twentieth century enriched the method of developing speech by means of painting with the works of L.A. Khodyakova, T.A. Ladyzhenskaya, T.F. Kurdyumova, E.N. Kolokoltseva, A.N. Gorchak, T.M. Mironova, etc.). In the 21st century, interest in studying the features of the use of paintings for the development of speech, communicative and cultural competencies, universal educational actions is supported by researchers I.K. Gero, N. D. Galeeva, A.D. Deikina, A.P. Eremeeva, N.A. Ippolitova, T.M. Pakhnova, O.V. Gordienko, I.A. Shapovalova, R.S. Sahakyan and others. While maintaining the best traditions of the use of paintings in the process of teaching the Russian language and improving the methodology for the development of Russian speech at the modern historical stage, the need to strengthen the methodological support of teaching and educating schoolchildren in the study of the Russian language, strengthening the scientific foundations for the development of innovative methods and technologies for organizing and implementing this process has emerged. Thus, the dominant role of such methodological approaches to teaching and development of Russian speech as anthropological, axiological, personality-oriented, system-activity-oriented is affirmed. The need for the development and implementation of successful practices for understanding the actual significance of the text in the technologies of critical thinking, methods of teaching interpretive activities is recognized. At the same time, attention is increasing to the study of the aesthetic and spiritual and moral potential of intersubject (interdisciplinary) connections of Russian language lessons, the development of Russian speech, and literature lessons.
According to scientists, a special role in the realization of the didactic potential of intersubject connections is played by the psychological and pedagogical support of students who are focused on understanding the world around them and themselves, their "I" in this world [1; 4; 5; 6; 7]. A necessary condition for the successful implementation of the didactic resource of psychological and pedagogical support for the development of schoolchildren's speech by means of paintings, as psychologists, teachers, methodologists rightly answer, is the "immersion" of students in active, motivated cognitive activity.
The study of literature on the issue of a person's understanding of his own "I" reveals the complexity of the integral nature of the intellectual and emotional characteristics of a person: cognitive component, emotional, behavioral. Such a three-component structure corresponds to the integral structure of a person's readiness to comprehend and form the image of his "I" through:
- self-cognition (cognitive component);
- evaluating oneself, one's personal qualities (emotional component);
- understanding the causes and consequences of their behavioral reactions (behavioral component).
The complex process of perceiving and understanding oneself, one's "I", psychologists say, is necessary for the successful socialization of a child. According to scientists, the ability to "understand oneself", to assess objectively one's actions, behavior, to be able to treat oneself constructively support the "emergence" in a child of an interest in the inner world of his "I":
- what emotional experiences do I respond to events;
- how these inner experiences are reflected in the mood and appearance;
- how does a change in attitude to his experiences, to his "I" affect a person.
A growing child without the support of adults is not ready to understand his own experiences, to evaluate their influence on actions and behavior.
Teachers who study such problems of adolescent growing up come to the conclusion that it is necessary to help the child understand himself, his "I", attitude to himself, using the didactic and aesthetic material of works of art, "immersion" of the student in the atmosphere of imaginary events close to the actual experience of the child.
The discovery of your inner world in recognition of your "I" in others - write scientists, always a joyful and exciting event that supports the child's understanding:
- your attitude to yourself;
- your self-esteem;
- your dreams, your opportunities;
- their agreement or disagreement (refutation, protest) with the opinion of others.
The child perceives the state of understanding his "I", self-esteem of his behavior and actions, his attitude towards himself through the focus on himself of the events of life. This is how the processes of self-identification that are important for the socialization of the individual take place.
The phenomenon of self-understanding in science is interpreted as a continuous self-interpretation that occurs in a certain social and cultural context in order to:
- become yourself, find personal meanings through experience;
- understand how people and "I" relate to the event, how others and "I" evaluate this event.
Self-understanding reveals to a person the truth about himself. The discovery of your inner world is a joyful and exciting event in which experiences, alarming, dramatic, begin, the formation is noted:
- attitude to yourself;
- perspectives, dreams, discovery of the world;
- the possibility of reflection on one's own universal human values, rejecting the readiness to accept or reject general moral maxims.
Psychologists believe that teachers cannot ignore a simple truth: all events are perceived through the "I", through the focus on oneself [1; 2; 3; 5; 6].
The cognitive activity of a teenager is characterized by the intensive development of formal operations, the ability to abstract study, hypothetical-inductive judgments with a significant lag in the content base of the intellect [4; 5; 6; 8; 9]. Consequently, the effectiveness of work on the development of the speech of schoolchildren, which involves the use of works of world artistic culture, is determined by its richness of the "content base", i.e. relevant knowledge about the social and cultural conditions in which a work of a particular type of art was created. For example, a teenager's psychological discovery when meeting with the paintings of landscape painters can be a comparison of his attitude to what is depicted with the opinion of a teacher, classmates. The readiness for self-understanding and self-determination of personal attitude to painting also depends on factors such as the social and cultural conditions of his upbringing. At the same time, one should not ignore the fact that "by acquiring the ability to immerse in oneself and enjoy personal experiences, a teenager learns a whole world of new feelings for him, the feeling of his own body, the sounds of music, the beauty of nature. Teenagers aged 14–15 begin to perceive and comprehend personal emotions no longer as a consequence of any external events, but as a state of their own "I" . Such immersions "in oneself", personal experiences stimulate "the teenager to introspection, thinking about his problems and about himself." So, when preparing for an essay on the painting by Aivazovsky, the frequency of such phrases was noted: "I noticed it too", "I for some reason did not pay attention to it", "I liked it too", "I do not agree with you", " I do not like such a sea. It scares me", "we don't have a sea like this", "I think that these people will die", "of course, they will be saved", "why did Aivazovsky portray a tragedy at sea?" life, he can defeat the power of the sea element".
Reflections about the artist, about the painting combined with the need for communication with others, with the need for "solitude", for thinking about one's "similarity" and "dissimilarity" to others. Such differences, scientists argue, are necessary primarily because the awareness of the dissimilarity of oneself from others logically and historically precedes the understanding of one's unity and deep inner connection with the surrounding world.
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