Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The paper considers the main sociopolitical trend of the modern world - globalization, which led to the emergence of terms such as "global governance" and "global leadership". One of the characteristic features of the modern world is the concept of a "green economy" and sustainable development. A new model of "global governance" is proposed, for which leaders are in demand, capable of controlling reorganization changes in modern life, especially taking into account the uncertainties and risks of the external environment. Only leaders with a high level of cultural intelligence will be able to influence the trajectory of changes in the future.

“global leadership”, the concept of “green economy” and sustainable development, innovative development, human capital
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"To be successful these days, you need to be a globally educated person." Robert Rosen [1]

Globalization - is a process of economic, political, cultural and religious integration and unification [2] (diagram 1).

Diagram 1. Globalization: main directions and consequences

Globalization is also a characteristic feature of all processes affecting the world economy. This can include changes in the structure of the world economy, represented as a set of national economies linked to each other by a system of international division of labor, economic and political relations, through inclusion in the world market and the close intertwining of the economy on the basis of transnationalization and regionalization. On this basis, the formation of a single world networked market economy - geoeconomics and its infrastructure, a decrease in the influence of state sovereignty [3], which has been the main actor in international relations for many centuries, is taking place. The process of globalization is a consequence of the evolution of state-formed market systems.

The processes of globalization are multifaceted and cover all areas of the economy, business, and all aspects of human activity. The exchange of knowledge, ideas, products and services, the acceleration of investment flows expands the national boundaries of business, creates international corporations with a diverse staff and a variety of national cultures. In addition to mutually beneficial cooperation, competition is also increasing.

"Competition permeates our entire life, notes R. Rosen. - We are all, to some extent, each other's consumers, suppliers, employers. The point is to take its rightful place in this global market that has no borders". [4]

Changes in the conditions in the economic market and new features of the competitive struggle require certain modernized qualities from leaders. To succeed in the conditions of globalization, a leader must be a versatile "globally" educated person.

Global education, according to R. Rosen, can be of four types: [1]

Personal global education is the leader's ability to correctly understand and evaluate himself. In addition, a global leader must continually improve his educational level.

Social global education is social support for representatives of various social groups. In the conditions of the technological revolution, the acceleration of the pace of life, a leader needs to establish cooperation, find talented specialists and direct their efforts towards achieving common goals.

Business global education is the ability to mobilize an organization in the face of constant change. To do this, the leader must be able to form a culture in which value, learning and innovation are important.

Cultural global education is about knowing and supporting cultural differences. A leader must understand the peculiarities of national cultures, be able to establish communication with representatives of other cultures, apply knowledge about cultures in his work [5].

A global manager is a specialist whose functions include developing a strategy, planning, coordinating a company's transactions outside the country. Its main goal is to achieve the company's competitiveness on a global scale [6]. Thus, advantages in the global competition for a leader are impossible without innovations. The development of scientific and technological progress in the economy at the final stage of the innovation cycle occurs on the basis of active investment activity, which ensures the growth of the scale of innovations and their significant impact on the rate of economic growth. The costs of the commercialization of innovations, the development of entrepreneurship in this area are dozens of times higher than the costs of science and R&D. This means that it is necessary to organize the rational management of innovative activities, including incentives from the state. Such management should have a strategic character and be based on the state's innovation policy.

On September 2, 2020, the next report "Global Innovation Index" (GII) [6] was presented, containing the results of a comparative analysis of the innovation systems of 131 countries and their rating by the level of innovative development. The leaders, like last year, were Switzerland, Sweden and the United States. Russia took 47th place, having lost one position compared to 2019 [7].

Ranking leaders. Switzerland again topped the ranking this year. Together with it, Sweden, USA, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Singapore, Germany and the Republic of Korea entered the top ten (fig. 1). There is a steady strengthening of positions in the GII of individual Asian countries. In 2020, the Republic of Korea entered the top 10 for the first time, and India, China, the Philippines and Vietnam have consistently demonstrated the fastest progress in the ranking over the past years. In GII-2020, they all entered the group of 50 leading countries.

Russia in the Global Innovation Index - 2020 In GII-2020, Russia took 47th place, down one point compared to last year 2019 (tab. 1) [7].

Russia's position in the innovation resources sub-index has traditionally turned out to be significantly higher than in the innovation results sub-index (42nd place against 58th). Moreover, if in the first case there is a slight deterioration of the situation (-1 row) compared to the previous year, then in the second case there is a symmetric correction of positions (+1). Taking into account the increase in the number of countries in the ranking, we can conclude that the position of our country has not actually changed. (tab. 1)

 Thus, based on the above statistical data presented in the report "Global Innovation Index" (GII) [8], in economically developed countries the share of innovations is about 80%, in the Russian Federation - already more than 60%; at the heart of this process is the acceleration of the development of scientific and technological progress, and the natural advancement of business to the best indicators of its competitiveness, which is possible on the basis of innovations; at the same time, with the use of new products and the introduction of digital technologies, the capital intensity of the economy significantly decreases, and the labor intensity increases. And therefore, at present, investments in human capital significantly exceed investments in materialized capital, which predetermines the shift of emphasis in the development of the national economy from "capital" to "labor" (fig. 2)

Advantages and disadvantages of the Russian innovation system. According to-GII 2020, the strengths of the Russian innovation system (fig. 2) include:

Human capital and science (30th place in the ranking):

Market development level (55):

Business development level (42):

Development of technology and knowledge economy (50):

Weaknesses that have a negative impact on the efficiency of innovation in Russia include the following: [7]

Institutes (74):

Infrastructure (60): environmental sustainability (101), energy efficiency (115) and ISO 14001 certification (106).

The level of market development (55): lagging in the entire direction of investment (106), including the availability of microfinance (77).

Business development level (42): number of companies with educational programs (91); cluster development (95).

Development of technology and knowledge economy (50): number of obtained quality certificates ISO 9001 (105).

The results of creative activity (60): feature films (81), print and other media (76).

It should be noted that the main difference between human capital and materialized is the property of its economic reflexivity (activity), that is, the desire to predominantly achieve their own goals to the detriment of entrepreneurial or state ones; a consequence of this, in our opinion, is the presence of a "shadow" sector in the national economy, the size of which is comparable to the legal sector and "do not want" to shrink, despite the abundance of penalties; the basis of such a world order is, apparently, systemic corruption, that is, the desire of civil servants to privatize the income received from the provision of public services. Also, predominantly technogenic emphasis in the process of socio-economic development of Russia; Scientific and technical progress is carried out in many respects spontaneously (market), without state examination of the introduced innovations for the ability to preserve the long-term positivity of the socio-economic effect. This is especially true for durable goods. The short-term useful effect of economic innovations is a direct consequence of the desire of business to obtain "momentary" profit, lack of faith in the economic efficiency of investment activities.

Fig. 3 Globalization of the world economy

It is impossible not to pay attention to the consequences of globalization One of the results of globalization [2]. is the world division of labor, migration (and, as a rule, concentration) on a planet-wide scale of capital, labor, production resources, standardization of legislation, economic and technological processes, as well as the convergence and fusion of cultures of different countries. This is an objective process that is systemic in nature, that is, it covers all spheres of society. As a result of globalization, the world is becoming more connected and more dependent on all its subjects. There is both an increase in the number of common problems for a group of states, and an increase in the number and types of integrating subjects [4].

"Green" economy [9] - a new concept of sustainable development

The essence of the expression "green" economy, currently the society understands differently. The first point of view: these are new sectors of the economy that will improve the nature of the country. The second point of view: these are new assistive technologies, ecosystems that are designed to help and benefit nature. The third point of view: this is a transition to a new stage of development, the purpose of which is to create environmentally friendly products. Thus, the "green" economy is an environmental economy aimed at preserving the well-being of society through the efficient use of natural resources, as well as ensuring the return of end-use products to the production cycle. First of all, the "green" economy is aimed at the economical consumption of those resources that are currently subject to depletion (minerals - oil, gas) and the rational use of inexhaustible resources. Essentially, a green economy means clean or "green" technologies.

More and more countries are taking aim at "greening" their economies, realizing that sustainable development is hardly possible without environmentally friendly, energy and resource saving technologies. Belarus does not stand aside from these processes and, following the global trend, is gradually planning the transition to "green rails". Large international financial organizations are helping our country to take concrete steps to introduce "green" innovations. A good example is the large-scale "Green" Economy in Belarus" project launched under the financing agreement between Belarus and the European Union [10].

Fig. 4 The structure of the "green economy"


All of the above expected and planned changes are impossible without modernized human capital and new leadership concepts. It should be noted that in the era of globalization, there is a fundamental problem of leadership. A multilateral transformation is taking place against the background of the post-industrial period of society's development, which directly affects the formation of intellectual human capital. We can see the emergence of new working conditions (intellectual work is more in demand), management systems are being rebuilt, both in business – "project management" (and in government structures). The emphasis in management principles is shifted, the criteria for assessing the quality of work are changing. For example, creativity is more popular than diligence. 

In connection with the flow of powerful transformations in society - social, democratic, economic in connection with the introduction of digital technologies, the role of the state, its impact on organizations and individuals, is becoming different. Naturally, the system of public administration is being rebuilt, since the concept of "multitasking" of functions and decision-making appears for a leader - a leader, especially taking into account the factors of uncertainty and risks of the external environment. All these characteristics require action in improving human resources and the formation of rational leadership in public administration.

Under these circumstances, a leader is in demand - a leader of a new type, both in business and in the public administration system. New competencies inherent in such a leader are: systems thinking, a set of knowledge and skills in the digital economy, a high level of responsibility for decisions made and the results of their activities. Leaders - leaders are agents of change and initiators of successful reforms, I develop development strategies, ways to implement them, taking into account the natural resistance to change among the employees of the organization.

Stable and effective development of the welfare state should be ensured by the formation and development of managerial competencies in society. Close attention to the topic of leadership in the public administration system ensures that numerous factors are taken into account: psychological, value, historical and moral. The transformative personality of a leader plays an important role in the life of small and large groups, in organizing their activities, in making group decisions.[1]

Leadership - has a certain collective meaning and requirements put forward to leaders of various levels. At the same time, you need to be not only a leader - an administrator appointed according to the staffing table, but also a leader - a leader leading people, be able to convince them, take on more responsibility than is written in the job description, motivate them to be creative in achieving tasks placed in front of the organization. And, of course, the question arises about what competencies a professional should have a leader, what potential he should have (fig. 4).


Fig. 5   Leader's potential

The UN World Report "Unlocking Human Potential for Improving Public Sector Effectiveness" notes that "the ability of government agencies to make their staff work effectively in the public interest depends on the ability, motivation, virtue of the individuals who work in these institutions, as well as on their leadership qualities"[11].


1. Savinova S. Yu. Leadership in business: textbook and workshop for academic bachelor's degree / S. Yu. Savinova, E. N. Vasilyeva. - 2-nd ed., rev. and add. - Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2019

2. Tsukarev S.S., Haag A.V., Kovaleva O.S. Economic aspects of management activity. Textbook. Novosibirsk: NSAU,2015, 403 P.

3. Novikova I. V. Globalization, state and market: retrospective and perspective of interaction. - Mn: Academy of Management under the President of the Republic of Belarus, 2009. 217 P.

4. Erofeeva, A.V. Pedagogical dialogue at the university: theory, position, practice: monograph / A.V. Erofeeva, E.I. Perfilieva. - N. Novgorod, 2012, 134 P.

5. Daft R.L. Leadership lessons. - Eksmo, 2006. P.32.

6. Novikova I. V. Globalization, state and market: retrospective and perspective of interaction. - Mn: Academy of Management under the President of the Republic of Belarus, 2009. 217 P. Date: March 20,2021

7. Global Innovation Index - 2020 - News- Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge - National research university "Higher school of economics" ( (appeal date 02.02.2021)

8. Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2020). The Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation? Ithaca, Fontainebleau, and Geneva. (appeal date 02.02.2021)

9. date 02.02.2021)

10. (appeal date 02.02.2021)

11. Ofitserov M.A. Modern leadership in public administration: methodological aspects of the formation of knowledge, skills and abilities

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