Today, the Russian economy faces new long-term systemic challenges, internal and external threats in the economic sphere, reflecting both global trends and internal development barriers. In the scientific work, an attempt is made to identify and consider the main external and internal threats and their consequences for the economic security of pipe-rolling enterprises in the Russian Federation, which need operational regulation or consistent strategic neutralization. The main mechanisms of ensuring the economic security of the industry, which is a strategically important system-forming link of the country's economy as a whole, are revealed.
economic security, pipe companies, external threats, internal threats, sanctions, COVID-19
The industrial complex of Russia includes pipe-rolling enterprises as the foundation of the entire fuel and energy complex. They are strategic enterprises, and their financial and economic activities are reflected in the level of sustainability of state economic development as a whole. After all, the efficient operation of the fuel and energy complex is the key to the foundation of economic stability and independence of the entire industrial complex of the Russian Federation.
It follows from this that ensuring the economic security of pipe-rolling enterprises is one of the priority tasks for the state, which requires the inclusion of a number of mechanisms aimed at the balanced and uninterrupted operation of the industry.
The state strategy of economic security of the Russian Federation  defines the key issues of state policy in the modern global world: assessment of current and potential threats to economic security, development of adequate countermeasures, identification of competitive advantages and opportunities, implementation of competitive potential.
Today, the Russian economy faces new long-term systemic challenges, internal and external threats in the economic sphere, reflecting both global trends and internal development barriers.
The first challenge is the strengthening of global competition, accompanied by an increase in geopolitical rivalry, including for control over raw materials and energy resources. This competition extends both to traditional markets for goods, capital, technology and labor, and to systems of national governance, innovation support and human development. It should be noted that for Russia, the transformation of the world economy creates new opportunities for the development of foreign economic integration, strengthening and expanding positions in world markets, and importing technologies and capital.
The second challenge is the expected new wave of technological change, which will enhance the role of innovation in socio-economic development and reduce the impact of many traditional growth factors. That is, the transition of the world economy to a high-tech structure, which leads to an increase in the role of human capital as the main factor in economic development and state security.
In this regard, it is necessary to take adequate measures of state policy aimed at overcoming the third challenge - the existing negative trends in the development of human potential, including:
- declining population and employment in the economy;
- growing competition with European and Asian markets for qualified personnel;
- decrease in the availability of social services in the field of health care and education, low quality of these services.
The fourth challenge is the depletion of the potential of the raw material export model of economic development. Energy export yields are declining due to the transition to efficient technologies and the trend towards renewable sources. Modernization of the fuel and energy complex, development of the resource base and infrastructure requires significant resources, which can lead to an increase in the level of economic costs.
An extremely negative factor is the policy of the United States and the EU to change the strategic foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation, which is expressed in the use of technologies against our state for creating crisis situations in the financial, economic and socio-political spheres [2, 3].
To build an effective system of external economic security of pipe rolling enterprises, it is necessary to identify the most dangerous external threats that need operational regulation or consistent strategic neutralization.
Mechanisms for ensuring foreign economic security
So, let us consider the main external economic threats and mechanisms to prevent their consequences for pipe-rolling enterprises.
The first threat is negative changes in the structure of foreign trade associated with the sanctions regime and lockdowns from COVID-19, which lead to the destruction of foreign economic partnerships between the states that export pipe products, as well as the breakdown of the external supply chain, which there is nothing to replace in the domestic market. As a mechanism to prevent an increase in negative changes in the structure of foreign trade, the state, together with business, should adopt an effective and efficient policy of regulation in relation to foreign economic activity aimed at creating favorable conditions for the favorable economic functioning of the Russian pipe-rolling industry [4, 5].
Urgent measures must be taken to prevent the spread of the pandemic:
– Organizational and medical measures, including the growth of scientific research and technologies related to health, the availability of services, the provision of universal vaccination, additional government funding in the field of medical facilities, equipment, pharmaceuticals, online health consultations in the fight against COVID-19, an increase in strict the mobilization capabilities of the system as a whole and ensuring the highest level of safety for physicians involved in the fight against the pandemic.
– Exchange of knowledge, determination of priorities for joint coordinated work of international health organizations with domestic research centers and medical authorities.
– Strict sanitary and epidemiological control with the countries affected by the pandemic, but especially with the countries in which the research centers of biolaboratories associated with the Pentagon are located.
Sanctions always "hit the sick": dependence on imported equipment, technologies, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce counter-sanctions, agreed with the leading pipe-rolling enterprises, where the emphasis is placed on the development of their own production (import substitution).
The second external threat is a decrease in prices and energy consumption in the world market, which leads to a decrease in the flow of investments in the pipe-rolling industry, and this negatively affects the financial activities of enterprises and, as a result, leads to losses in tax payments to the budgetary funds of the Russian Federation.
As a safety mechanism, it is necessary to effectively develop the oil and gas chemical industry in Russia, aimed at achieving a high level of competitiveness of production through the synchronization of production, delivery and processing of raw materials while stimulating domestic demand for oil and gas chemical products with high added value. Construction of new enterprises (clusters) that will be able to ensure the transition from the export-raw-material model of the development of the petrochemical industry to the resource-innovative one, which involves the production of high value added products along the entire technological chain from raw materials to finished products. Without these products, it is impossible to ensure not only energy, economic, but also defense security of the country .
The third threat is an increase in the dynamics of the movement of factors of production abroad, which means the "flight" of capital to more developed economies.
A mechanism for overcoming this severe systemic threat can only be the implementation of a targeted set of measures in all spheres of the state and society, which is possible only if citizens have a high level of trust in government bodies and authorities.
Today, state bodies have a tool in their hands to combat these negative phenomena - Federal Law of November 24, 2014 N 376-FZ "On Amendments to Parts One and Two of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation (in terms of taxation of profits of controlled foreign companies and income of foreign organizations) "(as amended by Federal Laws dated 06.04.2015 N 85-FZ, dated 08.06.2015 N 150-FZ, dated 15.02.2016 N 32-FZ, dated 28.12.2017 N 436-FZ, dated 19.02.2018 N 34-FZ, dated 12.11.2018 N 412-FZ). The authorities need to conduct constant financial monitoring of the observance of currency and customs legislation and strengthen the responsibility of the inspection authorities .
The fourth external threat to the economic security of pipe rolling enterprises is the protectionist policy of the states of the Anglo-Saxon world, which leads to unfair competition, expressed in the absence of the possibility of selling pipe products in countries with protectionist policies .
The mechanism to ensure the prevention of this threat is to resist the economists who allegedly found a solution to the threat of protectionism - unfair competition, in the form of the creation of transnational companies, the formation of which "successfully" came to Russia from the West. It turns out that the policy of the Anglo-Saxon coalition negatively affects only enterprises operating on the territory of the state and not included in such companies. This is probably why the threat from the protectionist policy of the states of the Anglo-Saxon world does not seem so significant in comparison with the growing power of transnational companies, which, like an octopus, have spread their tentacles all over the world .
The fifth foreign economic threat is the negative impact of international economic organizations and transnational companies, leading to the conquest of the domestic market by foreign firms and, as a result, the growth of the industry's dependence on imports (equipment, technology, etc.), the elimination of pipe-rolling enterprises (bankruptcy) in favor of competitors abroad .
The mechanism for countering this threat is the need for the State to pay close attention to the growing influence of transnational companies that have a negative impact on the country's economy, gradually absorbing small and medium-sized companies, buying up their assets and property . Transnational corporations seek to control all sectors of the economy, including the pipe-rolling industry, leaving little room for small businesses that cannot compete with large companies.
Internal economic security mechanisms
The main internal economic threat to the pipe rolling industry is the orientation of the economy towards the export of raw materials, although the world situation is rapidly changing and the sale of pipe products in the direction of Nord Stream 2, Power of Siberia is no longer accounted for, since the construction of these facilities is almost completed . In this regard, it is necessary to look for new directions for the sale of pipe products in the domestic market. Such areas can be the housing and communal services sector, according to the draft "Strategy for the development of housing and communal services in the Russian Federation until 2035", the project of turning Siberian rivers to the south, by building a water pipeline from Russia to China through the territory of Kazakhstan, as well as trunk pipelines to Crimea, on North Caucasus and Lower Volga region . Restoration of the irrigation complex, associated with the technical re-equipment of existing and complete replacement of failed resource systems in accordance with the Draft Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation "On approval of the state program for the effective involvement of agricultural land in the turnover and development of the reclamation complex of the Russian Federation", calculated until 2030 .
The industrial complex of Russia today faces an acute economic problem of import substitution in the field of modernization of production and wear and tear of the transport system (oil pipelines, gas pipelines, water pipelines, etc.). To solve it, it is necessary to launch a mechanism for the innovative development of pipe-rolling production with the use of high technologies. The state should pay close attention to the rational distribution of investments, not only for the introduction and development of domestic specials. equipment that is not inferior to Western counterparts, but also for the production of pipeline transport technological systems, which should ensure the reliability of all those. processes of the modernized enterprise and be carried out taking into account the possibility of their high-quality management and maintenance.
The pipe-rolling industry is a strategically important backbone link for ensuring the economic independence of our state as a whole, since the production of pipe products manufactured with the intensive use of the latest technologies has two-way interaction with the successful development of not only the fuel and energy complex, but also mechanical engineering, construction - offices and other branches of the national economy of the Russian Federation. To ensure an effective system of economic security for pipe rolling enterprises, it is necessary to launch a number of mechanisms to consistently neutralize the identified external and internal threats and their consequences.
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