Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The article examines cooperation between Russia and Kazakhstan in the context of security, taking into account the existing potential of the CSTO. It is emphasized that both sides have a common point of view on key issues related to maintaining stability and peace. Emphasis is placed on the absence of disagreements between Russia and Kazakhstan in matters of regional and international security.

Russian Federation, Republic of Kazakhstan, foreign policy, cooperation, CSTO
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Since the establishment of diplomatic relations on October 22, 1992, Kazakhstan and Russia have been linked by long-term good-neighborly relations based on mutual understanding and mutually beneficial cooperation in all areas. Today, about 4,000 treaties and agreements are in force, which formed the basis of bilateral allied relations and integration ties. The fundamental documents are the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance (05.25.1992) [1], the Declaration of Eternal Friendship and Alliance, oriented to the XXI century (06.06.1998) [2] and the Treaty of Good Neighborliness and Alliance in XXI century (11.11.2013) [3]. Russia and Kazakhstan are successfully cooperating within the CIS, SCO, CICA, EAEU. Strong partnership relations between the two countries allow them to act as a united front in resolving various regional and global problems. In the scientific literature, many historical moments associated with the 1990s, the period of the formation of bilateral relations, have been investigated [4]. Scientific analysis of Kazakh-Russian relations in the field of security in the 2000s is interesting from the point of view of forecasting the prospects for bilateral relations. In this regard, the topic of the article is being updated.

In addition to the main interstate treaties, the Concept of the foreign policy of both countries formed the basis of the Kazakh-Russian cooperation in the field of regional security. In the "Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation", approved by the President of Russia V.V. Putin on November 30, 2016, along with the country's desire to ensure its security, participate in the preservation of peace, etc., speaks of the formation of a belt of good-neighborliness along the perimeter of the Russian borders [5]. Kazakhstan is just part of this perimeter, with a total length of 7591 km of common borders [6]. Continuous in the Kazakh-Russian relations is not only the border, but also friendly relations between the peoples of both countries. The common historical past, together the hardships and achievements experienced together give confidence that no obstacles, internal or external, are capable of destroying trust between the peoples of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation.

The Russian Federation is one of the world powers, on whose foreign policy regional and global security depends. Realizing this, the Concept states that "Russia is fully aware of its special responsibility for maintaining security in the world both at the global and regional levels and is aimed at joint actions with all interested states in the interests of solving common problems" [5]. In a separate chapter of the Concept "Strengthening International Security", the goals of Russia on the consistent strengthening of international security and stability at the strategic and regional levels are shown. Regional priorities of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation consist in the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation with the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and further strengthening of the integration structures operating in the CIS space with Russian participation [5].

President K.K. Tokayev approved by his decree the Concept of Security of Kazakhstan on March 6, 2020 in the fifth chapter: Trends and vision of the development of foreign policy ", the priorities in the field of maintaining international peace and security are highlighted.  The Foreign Policy Concept of the Republic of Kazakhstan calls the further development of allied relations with the Russian Federation as one of the main priorities in the field of regional and multilateral diplomacy; development of bilateral and multilateral interaction with the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States in order to strengthen multilateral dialogue in the political, trade, economic and humanitarian fields, as well as in the field of security and countering new challenges and threats; activation of mutually beneficial relations with the leading European states outside the EU. Continuation of the course to expand cooperation with multilateral organizations in the field of politics and security in Europe and Eurasia - the Collective Security Treaty Organization, [7]. The foreign policy concepts of both countries once again prove that Russia and Kazakhstan occupy a priority place in each other's foreign policies.

The 1994 Military Cooperation Treaty, along with other treaties, coordinates cooperation between Russia and Kazakhstan in ensuring national and regional security. In particular, Article 2 of the Agreement "On Military Cooperation" states the following: "In the event of a situation that threatens the security, independence or territorial integrity of one of the Parties, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan immediately hold consultations and take concrete actions to provide each other with the necessary assistance, including military, in accordance with international law, the bilateral Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance of May 25, 1992 and the Collective Security Treaty of May 15, 1992" [8]. In general, both countries understand their responsible role in such a complex matter as confronting the threats and challenges of the modern world. Trust between countries is tested when actions are agreed to reduce threats to national security. In matters of security, there are no fundamental contradictions between Russia and Kazakhstan. Both countries understand that their national security is linked to regional security, which can only be achieved through joint efforts and on the basis of high confidence.

The XXI century has called into question the traditional security models associated with the bipolar system of international relations. Now mankind is faced with modern threats, which were the result of the transition of mankind to the informational stage of its development. The struggle for energy resources is escalating, separatist tendencies, religious extremism are escalating, and international terrorism is strengthening its positions. Understanding the complexity of resolving these threats and challenges, Kazakhstan and Russia call the security sphere one of the key areas in bilateral relations. "And now, after the activation of the Taliban movement (banned in Russia), it is worth paying close attention to this region again in order to find a way of a political settlement of the Afghan problem" [9.p.2083].  

From the point of view of the national security of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan, stabilization of the situation in the post-Soviet space is of great importance. Kazakhstan and Russia are large states in the post-Soviet space and play a significant role in the activities of the CIS. Instability in the post-Soviet space, especially in the Central Asian region, forces the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan to strengthen not only their national security, but also to unite to resolve the security problems of the rest of the CIS members. The relevance of considering cooperation between Russia and Kazakhstan in the field of regional security is dictated by the fact that in the XXI century it is no longer possible to confront one by one the new challenges that destabilize the situation in the Eurasian space. An important area of ​​cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia in the field of security is military-political cooperation, which became possible due to their similar views on national security problems and the leading role of both states in ensuring regional security. Therefore, it is natural to integrate the two states in the military-political sphere, which at one time led to the creation of the Collective Security Treaty Organization within the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Nobody disputes the leading role of Russia and Kazakhstan in this organization.

CSTO plays a significant role in ensuring peace and security, in countering the threats of terrorism, extremism and separatism, in the fight against illegal production and drug trafficking in the post-Soviet states. The Russian Foreign Policy Concept writes about the role of CSTO in ensuring security: "Russia regards the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) as one of the most important elements of a modern security system in the post-Soviet space. Russia stands for the qualitative development of CSTO, its transformation into an authoritative multifunctional international organization capable of confronting modern challenges and threats in the context of the increasing impact of diverse global and regional factors in the CSTO area of responsibility and adjacent regions" [5]. CSTO begins its history with the Collective Security Treaty signed in 1992. In addition to the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan, it was signed by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Armenia. A year later, Belarus, Azerbaijan and Georgia joined the Treaty. According to V.A. Chernov "The accession of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Belarus not only territorially expanded the zone of responsibility of the Treaty, but also gave the emerging structure new geopolitical dimensions. Three main directions of CST interests were identified - the western one, represented by the union of Belarus and Russia, the Caucasian and Central Asian"[10]. At the beginning of the XXI century, the question of the fight against international terrorism arose. The current situation in Afghanistan requires close attention of the CSTO to the Central Asian region.

As you know, the Treaty was expanded into the Collective Security Treaty Organization back in 2002. This transformation indicated that the CSTO is now positioning itself as an independent mechanism of international security without being tied to the CIS. At the moment, 6 out of 9 members remained in CSTO, since Azerbaijan, Georgia and Uzbekistan left it in 1999. Uzbekistan returned to the Organization in 2006, but withdrew again in 2012. In 2001, the Collective Security Council (CSC), as the supreme body of the CSTO, decided to create the Collective Rapid Deployment Forces (CRDF), and in 2009, as a result of deeper military-political integration, the Collective Rapid Reaction Forces (CRRF) were formed. As a result, military cooperation intensified - joint exercises and operations against crime began to be held annually. The CRRF also sets itself the task of combating drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, as well as conducting operations to eliminate the consequences of natural and man-made emergencies. November 28, 2019 President of Kazakhstan K-Zh. Tokayev at the session of the CSTO Collective Security Council in Bishkek, speaking about the position of the Republic of Kazakhstan on topical issues of the organization's activities, said the following: "We intend to develop political cooperation within the CSTO, strengthen the organization's military potential and counter modern challenges and threats." K-Zh. Tokayev believes that the organization should be more bold to speak out with a more active position, "linking Europe and Asia into a single Eurasian security platform" and for this "proposed to work on the international reputation of CSTO." "We are not opposed to anyone, but on the contrary, we are ready for a mutually beneficial dialogue. It is important to promote this principle", said the President of Kazakhstan [11].

On March 11, 2020, CSTO Secretary General S. Zas met with V.V. Putin and reported on the plans of the CSTO. In particular, the organization plans to: expand the foreign policy activities of the CSTO and strengthen cooperation with international organizations; to carry out work on the practical inclusion of units of the CSTO Peacekeeping Forces in UN peacekeeping operations (for this, create a Base Center for the Training of Peacekeeping Units in accordance with UN standards); expand political cooperation with the countries of the world through inter-parliamentary ties (to date, such ties have been established with Serbia and Afghanistan); early approval of the Plan for the Development of Military Cooperation of the CSTO Member States for 2021-2025 and the Draft Anti-Drug Strategy of the CSTO Member States for 2021-2025 [12]. In our opinion, the successful implementation of promising measures will expand the powers of the CSTO in the fight against modern threats and give confidence to the CSTO member countries in the area of important points of national security. So, CSTO has a solid potential that can be used in the fight against both traditional external (international terrorism, illegal migration, drug trafficking) and new threats (inciting information wars, cyber attacks, threats to energy supplies, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction). Coordinated actions with regional and international integration associations will strengthen the position of the CSTO and lead to an increase in its practical importance in the field of security.

Interstate integration is viewed as a social institution that meets the collective needs of states and takes various organizational forms, in particular, meeting the needs of the Eurasian states of the post-Soviet space to pursue an independent policy and ensure their own security, which implies the expansion of ties within such structures as the CSTO and the SCO. The main threats to security in the Central Asian region remain: activities of extremist organizations aimed at destabilizing the situation in the countries of the region; the creation and operation of illegal armed groups; distribution and transportation of drugs, the growing influence of the drug mafia; illegal circulation of weapons, ammunition, explosives, etc.; socio-political instability in the countries of the region; the presence of hotbeds of military conflicts near the borders; the spread of the influence of international terrorist organizations, the strengthening of the position of religious extremism [12].

Thus, at the moment, the urgent tasks facing the CSTO are related to activities aimed at expanding the demand for the organization in maintaining stability and security in the CAR and around the world. In general, cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia in the field of security, especially within the framework of the Collective Security Treaty Organization, will contribute to the joint struggle against modern threats and challenges.   


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