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Abstract (English):
This article is devoted to the formation of cooperation between Kazakhstan and Turkey in the field of culture. It is noted that the beginning of cooperation was laid in the 1990s and continues to the present. It is emphasized that the types of cooperation are of a different nature: from festivals, exhibitions, book editions to joint study of the historical and cultural heritage of the Turkic world.

Turkey, Kazakhstan, culture, cooperation, creativity
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As you know, the development of bilateral relations between Turkey and Kazakhstan began from the moment Kazakhstan declared its independence. Over the past years of cooperation between the two states, bilateral agreements have been signed, primarily in the spheres of trade, economics and politics. Significant progress has been made in the implementation of these agreements. It is obvious that for closer cooperation - and especially between the two fraternal peoples - only trade and political contacts are not enough. It is necessary to develop and strengthen based on the dialogue of cultures, the dialogue of literature and art [1]. Relations between Turkey and Kazakhstan in the field of culture are based on a number of international legal documents. In the spring of 1992, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey (RT) Suleiman Demirel paid a visit to Kazakhstan, and an Agreement on cooperation in the field of culture, science, education and sports was signed between the governments of the two states. The parties agreed to promote the development of relations in the field of theater, music, opera, ballet and other arts, as well as the establishment of joint activities in these areas and the organization of mutual visits. [2] In the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) and the Republic of Turkey dated October 17, 1994 in Art. 7 indicated that the parties will promote direct cooperation in the field of art and culture and provide the necessary assistance in the opening of cultural centers of the two countries. [3. p. 46.]  The protocol on cultural cooperation between the Ministry of Cultures of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Turkey was signed in Istanbul on September 22, 1996. In it, the parties confirmed their intentions to create favorable conditions for strengthening cultural ties, as well as for protecting objects of historical and cultural heritage, amateur performances of folk art, folk art and other cultural activities. An important step of the Turkish Republic was the publication of a joint Turkish-Kazakh newspaper. It began to be published in Kazakhstan in January 1992. Its publication aimed at comprehensive coverage of the life of the two countries, and was aimed at strengthening business and cultural cooperation, expanding information exchange between the Republic of Turkey and Kazakhstan [4]. In April 1992, Ankara began regularly broadcasting TV programs to Azerbaijan and Central Asia. All expenses for the organization of broadcasting and communication were borne by the Republic of Turkey. The state pays great attention to public cultural organizations. Turkey and Kazakhstan took and actively participated in the work of the International Organization for Turkic Culture and Art - "TURKSOY".  The beginning of its activity was laid in the spring of 1992 in Istanbul, when the first meeting of the ministers of culture of the Turkic-speaking countries was held. The highest governing body is the Council of Ministers of Culture of the Turkic-speaking countries. The purpose of creating "TURKSOY" is the creation of a new cultural space within the Turkic world, based on the idea of the real and the parity of related cultures of the Turkic-speaking peoples. Setting the task to be a kind of support for the spiritual rapprochement of the Turkic-speaking peoples, "TURKSOY" sets the tasks: to promote the protection and study of the cultural values of the Turkic peoples; to carry out regional leadership in the development of cultural ties between the Turkic-speaking countries in the field of culture and art; to provide all members of the Commonwealth with equal rights in the field of cultural cooperation, regardless of the political orientation of their state structures. [5]

       The activity of this organization testifies to its desire to play a unifying role for the Turkic-speaking regions. "TURKSOY" has become an organization capable of bringing peoples closer together through cultural cooperation. The agreement on the fundamentals and principles of  "TURKSOY"  activity was signed in Almaty on July 12, 1993. The Republic of Kazakhstan, the Azerbaijan Republic, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Turkmenistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Turkish Republic became the participants of this organization. This document reflects the desire to unite the Turkic states: the parties, "striving for mutual understanding between the peoples of Turkic origin and speaking Turkic languages, taking into account the need for the development and prosperity of the culture and art of the Turkic peoples..." [6].

Turkey has a special role to play in case of equality of participants. In particular, the Executive Body-General Directorate "TURKSOY" (headquarters) in Ankara. Art. 7 stipulated that "funding for the activities of" TURKSOY "was carried out from the fund created by the Council of Ministers of Culture, and is formed from the contributions of the participating countries" [7] Since the establishment of the organization, a number of meetings were held at the level of the leaders of the Turkic-speaking states, a number of meetings of the Permanent Council of Ministers of Culture, during which issues of strengthening political, trade, economic, cultural and humanitarian relations between the countries were considered.   In 1999, a group of Kazakh scientists, writers and public figures took part in the 4th Kurultai of friendship and cooperation of the Turkic-speaking states. Along with this, a scientific-practical conference "Study of the heritage of Korkyt-ata" was held, where the President of Turkey presented the well-known figures of the Turkic states with a certificate of the members of the Ataturk International Cultural Center. In Kazakhstan, such a certificate was received by the Kazakh poet Mukhtar Shakhanov [8. p. 137.].

Thanks to the support of "TURKSOY", large international events were also held, in which cultural and artistic figures of the Turkic-speaking states took part: music and theater festivals, exhibitions of fine and applied arts, competitions and anniversary celebrations dedicated to significant dates, publication of books and calendars. "TURKSOI" contributed to the holding of the congress of writers of the Turkic world, which took place in June 1993 in Ankara. It was attended by writers from Turkey and Kazakhstan. In the same year, with the support of "TURKSOY", an exhibition of folk applied art of the Turkic-speaking states was organized, which was held in Almaty with the participation of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

At the 1994 summit of the Turkic-speaking states, the proposal of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev on joint celebration of major anniversaries of outstanding figures of the Turkic world in the field of culture, sciences and art was accepted. The practical implementation of this proposal was the celebration of the 150th anniversary of Abay in Turkey. For this purpose, a commission was created, headed by the Ambassador of Kazakhstan K. Saudabayev and adviser to the President of Turkey K. Zeybek [9]. The events were quite large-scale. As part of the week of Abai, collections of poems were published in Kazakh and Turkish languages. Lessons dedicated to Abay were held in Turkish schools. Meetings were held, programs dedicated to Abai were shown on television. And in order to emphasize the special significance of the creative heritage of the Kazakh poet, the Turkish side decided to name the school in Ankara after Abai. 

            "TURKSOY" continued to promote celebrations timed to the birthdays of Kazakh poets, organized in the Kazakh capital. Following Abay, in August 1996, celebrations were held in honor of the 150th anniversary of the birth of the Kazakh poet Zhambyl Zhabayev. A collection of the poet's poems was published specially for this date. Busts of Abai and Magzhan Zhumabaev appeared in the parks of Ankara [10]. Also, the works of Kazakh writers were translated into Turkish. In particular, Abai, Zhambyl, Magzhan Zhumabaev, and others. Turkey's attention to the joint celebration of memorable dates timed to coincide with the birthdays of Kazakhstani poets was a demonstration of Turkish interest in the culture of the young republic.These actions were intended to create a positive image of the Turkish Republic not only in the eyes of the Kazakh leadership, but also in the eyes of ordinary citizens of Kazakhstan. Among the works of Kazakh writers and poets translated into Turkish are the poems of the founders of Kazakh literature - Abai, his famous novel "Abai Zholy", Mukhtar Auezov and Zhambyl Zhabayev. M. Shakhanov "The Delusion of Civilization" - published by TDAV; O. Suleimenov "The Language of Writing"; A. Kekilbayuly "Pleiades"; M. Shakhanov "The cry of a hunter over the abyss".

The Days of Culture and Art of Turkey are held. During these events, it was emphasized that "only culture can become the basis of political stability, economic well-being and spiritual prosperity of any country" [11]. The visits of creative teams, held on a reciprocal basis, are aimed at strengthening friendship between peoples. Turkey, a country famous for its folklore, dance and music festivals, regularly invited Kazakhstani creative teams to take part in them. It is obvious that organizing such events is the best way to develop cultural ties. In accordance with the agreements reached between the Republic of Kazakhstan and Republic of Turkey, the Turkish government agreed to allocate 100 places in cultural educational institutions in specialties related to the cultural component of the state.

   An important event in the Turkish-Kazakh relations was the work on the restoration of the historical and architectural complex: the mosque and the mausoleum of Khoja Akhmet Yassavi. This monument was erected at the end of the XIV century at the burial place of the great scientist, thinker, philosopher and leader of the Sufi order. Since that time, the mausoleum has become a national pantheon; great Kazakhstani khans, religious leaders and representatives of the nobility are buried in it. In addition, it is also a place of worship for Muslims all over the world, where many pilgrims come. The restoration project of the mausoleum began to be actively implemented after the arrival in December 1992. During a meeting at the Ministry of Culture, its head E. Rakhmadiev, the president of the firm E. Onal, and general director S. Polat signed an Agreement on the conservation, restoration and restoration of the greatest monuments of Muslim architecture in Kazakhstan - the mausoleum of H. A Yassavi. The Turkish National Assembly has allocated 54 million dollars for this purpose [12]. But on the way to the implementation of the project, certain difficulties arose. The restoration of this monument turned out to be a very difficult matter, during which the performers faced such problems as the lack of building materials, design principles and measurements of old architects, which were completely different from modern ones. The master restorers had to recreate the grandiose scale, magnificent forms and elegance of the interior decoration. Despite all the above points, the restoration work continued to be carried out. At the 27th session of UNESCO, the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassavi was included in the list of World Cultural Heritage, which undoubtedly emphasized the importance of the implementation of this project, both for Kazakhstan and for Turkey.

The opening of the monument in 2000 as part of the celebration of the 1500th anniversary of Turkestan. These days, the official visit of RT President A.N. Sezer to Kazakhstan. The presidents planted trees and took part in a scientific conference dedicated to H.A. Yassawi. Today, the Turkish Cultural Center has become an influential institution that helps the development of Turkish culture in Kazakhstan. A library has been opened, and Turkish language courses are in operation. Also here you could get all the information about Turkey and its tradition [13]. With the support of the Turkish side, the works of more than 35 Kazakhstanis have been translated into Turkish, including the works of N.A. Nazarbayev, Abay, Zhambyl, M. Zhumabaev, M. Auezov, O. Suleimenov, A. Kekilbaev, M. Shakhanov and others, in turn, the outstanding political figure N.K. Zeybek translated the book "Yassavi's Way" into the Kazakh language. The Kazakh Turkologist F. Ali, with the help of the Turkish Agency for Strengthening International Cooperation, published in a separate edition a book written by a Turkish scientist under the title "Foundations of Turkism". One of the last ones was the translation into Turkish of the book of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev "In the Heart of Eurasia".

The "Weeks of Kazakhstan in Turkey" are held in Ankara, the Day of the Republic of Kazakhstan is celebrated. There are a photo exhibition, ethnographic expositions illustrated with books, film screenings, etc.

Thus, the holding of such permanent and large-scale events indicates that both Nur-Sultan and Ankara realized the need to maintain ties in this area at a certain level, since such contacts were able not only to maintain mutual interest between the peoples of the two countries, but further strengthen the developing economic and political relations between the two states.


1. Damıra Ibragım. Karşılıklı edebı ılışkılerımıze daır. Dialog Avrasya dergisi. P. 44. № 30. 2009.

2. Agreement on cooperation in the field of culture, science, education and sports./www.mfa.kz

3. Friendship and cooperation agreement between the RK and the RT. Zh.Tokayev Diplomacy of the RK. Astana, 2001. P 46

4. Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the RK on the publication of a joint Kazakh-Turkish independent newspaper "Zaman-Kazakhstan". www.mfa.kz

5. Official website of the President of the RK // Access: http://www.akorda.kz

6. Agreement on the establishment and principles of functioning of TURKSOY. http://www.turksoy.org.tr/

7. Interregional Center for Business Cooperation.// www.mcds.ru

8. Buribaeva A. Kazıpgı Kazakhstan - Turkiya katynastyry. Almaty 2002. P.137

9. Turkey is preparing for the anniversary of Abai // Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. 1995.31 March.

10. Tokaev K.K. Under the banner of independence. Essays on the foreign policy of Kazakhstan. Almaty. 2007 P.92

11. Interregional Center for Business Cooperation // Access: http//: www.mcds.ru

12. Official website of the President of the RK//Access: http://www.mfa.kz

13. Turkish Cultural Center.//Access: http//:www. Idc. Nursat.kz

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