Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The article outlines the main stages of the formation of Russian-Chinese cooperation in the field of education, focuses on the low level of integration processes in secondary vocational education (hereinafter - SVE) in the presence of their prerequisites; the actual forms of cultural and educational interaction are indicated; presents the results of a survey of students and teachers of secondary vocational education on the subject of international mobility, predicted the results and outlined the main difficulties of integration processes for secondary vocational education

system of secondary vocational education, vocational education, integration, international humanitarian cooperation, Russian-Chinese cooperation
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Russian-Chinese cooperation is a comprehensive strategic partnership. One of the most important components of this partnership is cooperation in the humanitarian sphere and, in particular, in the field of education, which is taking the form of integration processes.

The development of cooperation in the field of education is proceeding in stages:

- 12/18/1992 - an agreement between the governments of the Russian Federation and the PRC on cultural cooperation, including in the field of education;

- June 26, 1995 - an agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the mutual recognition of educational documents and academic degrees;

- July 16, 2001 - "Treaty on good-neighborliness, friendship and cooperation between the Russian Federation and the PRC", in which it was established (Article 16) that states in every possible way contribute to the development of exchanges and cooperation, including in the field of culture and education;

- 09.11.2006 - an agreement between the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia and the Ministry of Education of China on cooperation in the field of education, in accordance with which the main directions of cooperation were determined by academic mobility, deepening cooperation in organizing and studying the Russian and Chinese languages ​​in both states;

- 18.12.2020 - an agreement on cooperation and joint activities in the development of the vocational education system, which implies cooperation in joint research, exchange of experience, best practices in the development of the vocational education system in the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China. It was this document that became an indicator of the interest of the two countries in cooperation in the system of secondary vocational education [8].

Thus, for almost 30 years, humanitarian ties, lost at a certain stage of Soviet-Chinese relations, both in general and in the field of education, were restored. At the same time, the integration processes, first of all, went at the level of higher education.

Thematic cooperation in the form of Russian-Chinese cross-years is of great importance for the development of humanitarian ties [10].

The role of international cultural and creative events should be noted, in particular the China Today 2018 festival (Krasnodar, Moscow, 2018), organized by the All-China Association of Literary and Artists (CFLAC), the Beijing Rakurs Film Company and the Krasnodar State Institute of Culture.

Active integration processes are taking place in the field of higher education, where the main channels of communication are academic exchanges of students at the levels of bachelor's, master's, and postgraduate studies; semester exchange programs and internships in areas; creation of joint educational programs at various levels; creation of scientific, technical and research projects and laboratories; joint seminars, olympiads, symposia and scientific conferences for young scientists from the two countries; international summer and winter schools, joint scientific work [1].

Such a rich integration interaction confirms that international cooperation in the field of higher education is a priority [7].

Against the background of such active interaction at the level of higher education, the integration processes in secondary vocational education are extremely slow. At the same time, it is possible to indicate such prerequisites for integration as the presence of something common in the education systems of Russia and China [2], the historical experience of integration processes in the form of borrowing; integration processes in the higher education system, the presence in a number of universities that actively interact with universities in the PRC, SVE branches, which, being structural divisions of universities, are involved in integration processes; strengthening of cooperation between states in various fields and others.

Moreover, the draft Russian SVE Development Strategy until 2030, presented by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation in October 2020, provides for the constant updating of the content of vocational education and training in accordance with current and future requirements for the qualifications of workers and the development of technologies, the need to organize an international comparative study is noted. national SVE systems, promoting the export of technological sovereignty, providing for the creation of branches of Russian technical schools and colleges abroad, attracting students from abroad, improving the quality of education through the development of a culture of professional competition (WorldSkills International) [4].

Today, the main forms of Russian-Chinese interaction in the field of secondary vocational education are training and participation of students in blue-collar championships held by various international organizations, for example, within the BRICS. However, there are no international competitions for SVE students in creative specialties yet, with the exception of competitions in the skills of jewelry craftsmanship, graphic and landscape design, within the framework of WorldSkills [11].

Undoubtedly, the systems of secondary vocational education in Russia and China have the potential for deeper integration, and, in particular, for organizing the mobility of students and teachers of SVE institutions. The main types of this mobility can be short-term internships and summer schools, which require, first of all, a certain level of language training of the participants.

Conclusions on the presence of demand for participation in international student mobility programs were obtained in the course of a study conducted on the basis of the Krasnodar State Institute of Culture in March 2020. The survey was conducted among first-year college students of the Krasnodar State Institute of Culture. The aim of the study was to obtain objective information about professional choice and career development, about the attitude towards international student mobility. The study involved 73 students of such programs of secondary vocational education as: "Documentation support of management and archival science"; "Musical and instrumental art" ("Piano, Orchestral string instruments, Orchestral wind and percussion instruments, Folk orchestra instruments"); "Solo folk singing"; "Design in Culture and Art", "Choreographic Creativity". The research was voluntary and anonymous.

As a result of the study, the following data were obtained. Only 34 out of 73 students speak a foreign language (English), which is 46.5%, while 7 people can confirm their proficiency in a foreign language at any level (out of 34 - 20.6%, out of 73 - 9.6% ). The specification of the question of the confirmed level of language proficiency was introduced into the questionnaire in order to obtain more objective information.

To the question related to the desire to undergo a short-term internship abroad, more than 76% of the respondents gave a positive answer. Of 56 people who expressed a desire to participate in the international mobility program, 19 people (33.9%) indicated a preference for an internship in Europe and 37 people (66%) indicated a desire to do an internship in Asian countries.

More than 67% of the respondents expressed a desire, if possible, to continue their studies at a foreign university on undergraduate programs after successfully completing their studies on secondary vocational education programs at a college at FSBEI HE "KGIK".

The results of a questionnaire survey of students of the SVE department of creative directions of training showed that most of the students understand the importance of international student mobility and stay in a different socio-cultural environment for professional and personal development.

A survey conducted among the teachers (15 people) of special creative disciplines of the college at the Krasnodar State Institute of Culture showed that it would be interesting for them to get acquainted with the training system in the specialty in the PRC (100%), the absolute majority (86%) are ready to give master classes for their foreign colleagues and foreign students; more than half of the teachers (60%) said that they would be interested in an internship in China. The teachers especially pointed out the desire to get acquainted with the methods of teaching choreographic art, calligraphy and traditional painting, traditional solo vocal performance. Teachers of general education and special disciplines who work with students from the PRC (preparatory department, bachelor's degree, master's degree) note their organization, perseverance and ability to work, a positive attitude towards Russia, and a respectful attitude towards teachers.

As shown by the survey, the most important factor that can inhibit international student and teaching mobility in SVE is the weak knowledge of foreign languages.

Analyzing the results of interaction between the Krasnodar Institute of Culture and institutions of higher professional education of the PRC, projecting these results as potentially possible on the SVE department at the university, it can be assumed that the development of integration processes for the SVE system of a creative orientation will give the following results:

- students will gain experience of interacting with teachers from the PRC, get acquainted with a new method of teaching creative disciplines; studying abroad will provide an opportunity to get acquainted with the culture of another country, develop communicative and professional competencies, which will subsequently give tangible advantages in the labor market;

- for the teaching staff, working with foreign students and colleagues, conducting master classes and internships can stimulate the teacher's professional growth, striving for development;

- for an educational institution, the presence of outgoing mobility becomes a tool for attracting foreign students, and the export of educational services for SVE institutions is one of the criteria for the effectiveness of an educational organization [9]; interaction with educational organizations of the PRC in similar areas of training can become an important resource for the personnel policy of an educational institution; in addition, interaction at the SVE level acquires special meaning from the point of view of career guidance (students are interested in educational institutions that exist in the system of international educational and cultural relations), making it attractive not only to obtain secondary vocational education, but also to ensure admission to higher professional education programs [3] ;

- for the system of secondary vocational education: international cooperation will increase the social prestige and educational efficiency of creative SVE institutions;

- for the state and society as a whole, cooperation will give not only results for the education systems of the two countries, but will also give a new powerful impetus to international humanitarian cooperation.

Despite the potentially attractive results of Russian-Chinese interaction in the field of SVE, it is necessary to take into account the difficulties (insufficient regulatory regulation, a high level of administrative regulation, the peculiarity of the student population, staff shortages) that secondary vocational education institutions face in the process of implementing the strategy of internationalization of an educational institution. To minimize organizational risks, it is necessary to study and critically comprehend the experience of interaction at the higher education level from the point of view of its applicability in SVE, to objectively assess the resources of educational institutions and potential partners, while it is necessary to take into account the availability of personnel with the competencies to establish and maintain communication processes in a foreign language, with experience of interaction with the citizens of the PRC, knowledge of the culture and certain values ​​of society and the partner state, as well as material and technical security.

Issues and difficulties related to the level of foreign language proficiency among students can be resolved using the resources obtained as a result of cooperation in the field of higher education. There is no doubt that English remains the international language of business communication. At the same time, recently there has been an increase in demand for learning the Chinese language. So, for example, in Russia there are 21 representative offices of Hanban - Confucius Institutes and Schools, where students and employees can study Chinese (while 102 Russian Language Centers have been opened in China, the specialty “Russian language” has been opened in 153 universities) [6].

The training of personnel for the SVE institution who speaks Chinese can be organized through the cooperation of the higher education institution, the Confucius Institute and the SVE institution, where the institute can provide both language training and internship.

Analysis of integration processes in the higher education system, the presence of prerequisites for similar processes for the system of secondary vocational education, practical experience, taking into account potential difficulties, allow us to conclude that it is possible and necessary to develop integration processes in the SVE systems of Russia and China.


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