FEATURES OF THE SEVERODVINSK PAINTING «BORETSKAYA» AND THE HISTORY OF ITS ORIGIN
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Abstract (English):
The article describes the Boretskaya painting, its features and highlight the most important thing. In addition, tell about the peculiarities of the Boretskaya painting and the history of its birth with icon painting, as well as book miniatures; about compositional techniques, themes and manner, the study of traditions, preservation and research.

Keywords:
Severodvinsk painting, folk art, Boretskaya painting
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 Fig 1. On the map, the main villages along the North Dvina

Short description: The purpose of the article is to describe the Boretskaya painting, its features and highlight the most important thing. In addition, tell about the peculiarities of the Boretskaya painting and the history of its birth with icon painting, as well as book miniatures; about compositional techniques, themes and manner, the study of traditions, preservation and research.

Key words: Severodvinsk painting, folk art, Boretskaya painting.

Russian folk paintings are known all over the world. The murals were passed down from a family of craftsmen to a family. The followers, opening artels, passed on the skill of the folk fine applied art of painting. The most impressive among them are "Severodvinsk paintings". The term denotes the general name for folk wood painting dating from the late 18th century in villages along the North Dvina River (Fig. 1). In Arkhangelsk Oblast in the North-West of Russia, craftsmen created wooden objects and decorated them with borets painting.

Geographically located in the Northern Dvina, Borok village. The work on typing in various areas in the North was carried out by the expedition of the Historical Museum. They began to study painting scientifically since the 50s, the organizer of the expedition was the Zagorsk Museum, which sent an expedition to the Northern Dvina. The most reliable sources are described in the works of Kruglova and Arbat. In the 16th century, the Northern Dvina was a large cultural and commercial center and a transport interchange, and the neighboring towns along the riverbed were its centers (Fig. 1). The painting was formed in the 18th -19th century in a natural way, under the influence of the posad culture in the 18th century. Products are created in the same style, which served as the basis for all peasant paintings and further developed the peasant culture of the north [1].  

 Boretskaya painting is colorful, it is impossible not to notice and look away. Her beauty inspired her to study motives, event plots, created by masters of folk painting, revealing her characteristic features and techniques. It got its name from the area in which it originated. Boretskaya painting has existed since the 18th century. Among the legends and legends, there is also a tale about the origin of painting. About 500 years ago, the prince from Moscow, Ivan III, occupied the local lands. Collected a quitrent from Novgorodians. The boyars, part of which was headed by the noblewoman with a strong-willed nature, Marfushka Boretskaya, rebelled against injustice. To deal with them, Ivan III sent an army, and he managed to occupy Novgorod. The noblewoman fled to the North Dvina, she settled on the shore, fenced off the area with a rampart. The name "Borok" is from the surname of the boyaryn. Martha's estate was located many miles away. Borok today is a marina. Sources on the study of painting describe that the settlers went to the village, were icon painters and miniaturists, book illustrators [3]. The nature of the products is varied: chests, spinning wheels, boxes, tues, household items and many other items (Fig. 4). The predominant theme was scenes of folk life and festivities in symbiosis with natural motives (Fig. 4). Let's consider in more detail: Boretskaya painting - one of the varieties of North Russian graphic painting. The name comes from the village in which it originated. Borok - the village arose on the banks of the Dvina when the Dvina region was settled by boyars from Novgorod. The choice fell on the boretsk painting, the brightest representative of the north.

                             

Fig 2.  The tree of Life        Fig 3.   composition of boretz painting            Fig 4.Spinning wheels of the Amosovs

Description of the painting: The most elegant and richest is the Boretskaya painting. The most famous products are Boretsky spinning wheels (Fig. 4). They consist of three compositional parts. A typical composition consists of a window located at the very top of a spinning wheel, a tree of life in the middle and below - young lovers on a sleigh or a coachman (Fig. 3). The compositions are inspired by folklore and folk songs. The most famous masters in this direction are the Amosov family. Their works have survived to this day (Fig. 4).

Characteristic elements: The set of technical and visual means of the artists corresponded to the rules of icon painting. The images did not have a play of light and shadow, there was no implied light source. The images are always two-dimensional, the space is infinite, and all the persons are either equally enlarged or of equal size in terms of their significance in a particular plot. The second plan is usually absent, the proportionality of scale and perspective is not always observed. A characteristic feature is the minimum of details, due to which all scenes acquire special expressiveness. The characters are facing the viewer. Painting is located on a thin layer of levkas or primer. The composition is limited by a frame, like an ark and an icon, separating reality from the painted plot. Recognizable element: shamrock, branch with berries, tulip, tree, birds, horses, geometric ornament. In the early works, the school of northern icon painting is noticeable, the trace goes into ancient Russian art. Borok's decorative art includes the moments of the census, book design, popular prints, northern writing of icon painting (clothes embroidered with pearls, hats, outerwear, bright coloring of painting, horseman). It is the composition of the spinning wheels that is compared with the iconostasis. The icon painting is inspired by the presence of some signs, while the painting itself is original. Instead of saints, various birds and rays of the sun are depicted. Lions and fairy unicorns are depicted in the windows.

Color spectrum: In addition to the traditional colors of the yellow and red palette, as well as green, gold is added to the painting, making it festive and elegant. The background usually remains white. The images are distinguished by the grace of lines and the whiteness of the background, the floral pattern stands out in color, gilding with gold leaf created a festive look and an elegant, expressive mood.  

Compositional features and themes:  The characteristic features of the painting of the spinning wheel are the patterns on its stem. The shamrock extends on a straight stem along the entire leg, ending with a rosette with a very rich tulip. In the uppermost compositional circle, a dove or a beautiful flower could also be placed. The legs had a certain shape: they were cut out in the form of 4, 5 circles, connected by waves. The compositions reflect the everyday scenes of the peasants of the north. A rider on a horse (from one to two) is characteristic, plant motifs - bushes with buds and curls, petal rosettes, solar symbols. On the prominent side of the spinning wheel is a wedding theme, a carriage of a guy and a girl in themed guise, a princess or a merchant's family. Red clothes with gold belts, with gold trim with pearls. For the paintings of the 17th and 18th centuries, the element of the tulip is characteristic, the heroes are dressed in beautiful boyar outfits - this is the influence of local schools in Novgorod. New compositions and a trace of old Russian themes are also emerging, each master introduces his own small character of painting, having fallen in love with depicting birds more and more solemn and with richly decorated tails. The symbolic "Tree of Life" with the image of birds was most fond of the folk masters of painting Bork. The symbol of the power of nature, the well-being of a happy life is depicted by a strong and at the same time graceful tree with roots - the "Tree of Life" (Fig. 2). This part of the spinning wheel is therefore called STAVO WITH WOOD. A favorite image - a village sleigh, transport, relevant at any time of the year and in any weather, for any holiday and fair, for a wedding - this object is present in all characteristic scenes. Materials and tools: wood base, gouache, tempera, ink, brushes, feather, varnish, sandpaper and primer.

Conclusion: In the Boretsky paintings, everything is subordinated to the form of the object accompanied by a plot painting - both the decor and the painting are individually selected based on this rule.  Most of the masters tried to bring their own features into the painting, so the "Borok-Amos style", especially loved to gild the background, the contours of the horses according to a common stencil and used a compass to draw semicircles (from the research of Y. Arbat). [2]. Every piece of Bork became a work of art. Old Russian art influenced the development of painting, monumental painting, miniature, icon painting, ornamentation of books can be traced in them. The populist masters transferred book motives and miniature techniques to painting. The principle and manner of depicting clothes, colors and characters in the drawing are laconic and simplicity. Techniques in composition are typical for icon painting and book miniatures (combination of composition and narrative scenes of different times [2].

Pigments and techniques are taken from the miniatures of Ancient Rus. We primed the product, painted with a contour, ink, then filled everything with color. The paints were diluted with egg yolk, only later they switched to dyes. Although it is borrowed from the influence of books, the nature of the painting is different.
In the Northern paintings, plant motifs are visible among the components - a wriggling shoot with located sharp shamrocks and tulip-shaped flowers. Typical and popular compositions: sleigh rides, horseback riding, themed holidays and weddings, and in the center there was a fabulous bird or fish. The symbiosis of nature and man is inherently present in every plot. In the paintings, they created plot compositions in which everyday compositions, scenes with the image of hunters are common, everything is subordinate to symbols, it is especially noticeable in the composition of spinning wheels. In addition to a happy, prosperous life, wedding skating, scenes of peasant labor - scenes of the struggle of warriors, figures of horsemen, hunting scenes (Fig. 5). As an example, there is a hunting scene: the figure of the groom is the hunter, the bride is the bird. Confirmed by folklore research: before the wedding ceremony of lamentation, in words the bride compares herself to a bird, and the groom acts as a hunter [3].

 

        Fig 5. Characteristic compositions
Images of a unicorn, lion, horse, deer, fabulous birds gamayun, sirina, peacock, swan, duck, chicken, herbs, flowers (tulips), bushes, berries, geometric signs and circles of the sun are frequent (Fig. 5). A separate symbol is the tree of life - a symbol of the power of nature, the well-being of mankind and happiness. The color palette consists of shades of red against a contrasting white background. The paintings are inherent in carpet compositions; in earlier samples they resemble arabesques. Shades of greenery and yellow palette sound like additional ones in the painting. A characteristic feature is the contouring performed with black pigment and fine goose feathers or fine hairs. Many artists painted household utensils and came from icon painting schools, participated in the painting of church walls and facades. The paintings are both traditionally pagan and have Christian content. Shows its relevance in the modern interior, household items find their place, thereby preserving the traditions of the craft. Boretskaya folk painting is a bright and distinctive art. Each master Borka brought some of his own specific character and style to the painting, worthy examples of art will always be relevant. The products have survived to this day, decorating the house and spinning wheels with paintings, by which it is possible to study the chronology of the Boretsk painting, glorifying Russia with its unique originality.

References

1. Timofeeva, L. F. Peasant painting of the Bork masters: monograph / L.F. Timofeeva. — Arkhangelsk: 2004 (IPP "Truth of the North (Folk paintings of the Russian North. Boretskaya painting) 32 P.

2. Arbat, Yu. A. Russian folk painting on wood/— Moscow, Fine Arts. 1970. 200 P.

3. Kruglova O. "Folk painting of northern dvina" Moscow, "fine arts", 174 P. 1987