FORMATION OF THE COGNITIVE INTEREST OF YOUNGER SCHOOLS IN MUSICAL ART
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
In the era of innovative technologies, it is very important to promote the activation of the cognitive interest of junior schoolchildren in the music lesson for the development of an integral personality structure, as an integral part of modern society.

Keywords:
primary school age, development of cognitive interest, music lesson
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From the point of view of psychologist E.R. Bern, a general education organization for primary school age, is a demanding and harsh world in which a child must be independently responsible for interacting with teachers and peers, is forced to face a demanding attitude towards himself and his actions. At this time, a new type of activity opens up for the student, which is referred to as educational activity.

According to V.A.Averin, the following fundamental factors should certainly be taken into account in the pedagogical process, namely, that the younger and middle school age is characterized by a slowdown in the process of physical development of children, an increase in the specialization of the cerebral hemispheres, a striking difference in the growth rates of muscle tissue and bones. In this connection, children have poor coordination of movements, the attention of students lends itself to rapid fatigue, there is a clear violation of posture. These spectra contribute to the depletion of students' forces, their increased fatigue, weakening of the processes of the nervous system, the manifestation of pronounced anxiety. And, as a consequence, the unconscious repression of previously acquired psychological formations.

The prerogative of the first days of finding students in school should be total control by parents and teachers. After all, the school for children is a sharp change in the environment, which is still difficult for the body and psyche of younger schoolchildren. Therefore, it is important to create a favorable atmosphere, try to correctly involve younger students in the cognitive process [1, p. 243-244, 249, 256].

Numerous studies of psychological and pedagogical science believe that primary school age is such an age period, the leading role in the development of personality is played directly by the conditions of development. For children of this age, social conditions of life are important. In addition, the majority of a given age period of students have very different mental manifestations. In other words, in the same school, children of primary school age in different grades may have significantly different behavioral manifestations, which are mainly influenced by the social factor of the teacher, namely his communication style.

In primary school, the style of pedagogical communication between the teacher and the students is important. After all, it is communication that has a strong impact on the development of students' "ability to learn", on the development of cognitive interest, the manifestation of activity, the awakening of initiative in creative and constructive activities.

According to A.K. Markova, the following main styles of pedagogical communication should be distinguished:

  • Authoritarian style, in which the student plays the role of an object of pedagogical influence. The teacher dictates his requirements to the students, establishes strict control over the implementation of his instructions, does not take into account the situations and opinions of students, does not substantiate his point of view about his actions. This style of communication repels students, contributes to the manifestation of aggression, the formation of low self-esteem. Pupils experience a decline in activity, interest in the pedagogical process, attention is activated only with the teacher's unquestioning command to fulfill his requirements. Undoubtedly, the assimilation of knowledge and the development of the personality of students with an authoritarian style is at a low level, psychological self-defense has an advantage.
  • Democratic style. With this style of communication, there is a full-fledged cooperation of the teacher with the students. The teacher takes into account the opinions of students, gives students the opportunity to make decisions, approves the independence of reasoning, takes into account not only the degree of assimilation of knowledge, but also the personal qualities of students. This communication style is characterized by a favorable atmosphere, a state of calm satisfaction of students, the formation of their high self-esteem. The mechanisms of influence are advice, an incentive to action, a request.
  • Permissive style. This style of pedagogical communication is characterized by the absence of active teacher activity, relinquishment of responsibility for organizing the educational process, transfer of initiative to students and colleagues. Control and direct organization of the pedagogical process is carried out by the teacher without any formed system, the teacher shows indecision, as a result of which an unstable microclimate prevails, latent conflicts [2, p. 7, 84].

Due to the fact that a music lesson develops the spiritual and moral beginning of students, forms creative potential, musical culture, promotes self-expression, and most importantly, develops the child's personality, special attention should be paid to the development of cognitive interest in this subject in younger students. , because the elementary school is the most important foundation in which knowledge, skills and abilities, the foundations of the future personality, are just beginning to be laid.

According to psychologists, cognitive interest is the main, specific, internal motive for educational activity.

E. A. Baranova believes that cognitive interest contributes to the effective formation of a student as a subject of educational activity, because he is distinguished by incredible incentive and regulatory resources [4, p. 134].

The development of cognitive interest occurs with the direct cooperation of the teacher with the students. A benevolent interaction occurs when the teacher uses a democratic style of communication and nothing more. Since it is a favorable climate, respect for students, consideration of their opinions, encouragement that win over students and increase their cognitive interest in a music lesson.

An important aspect is the organization of work in small groups. Thus, V.F. Morgun revealed that recruiting students in groups is of great motivational importance. If, however, children with a neutral attitude to the subject are involved in joint work with students who do not like this subject, then the second, after the work done in the group, noticeably increases interest in the subject. If you combine children who love the subject with students who are neutral about the lesson, then the attitude of the latter remains unchanged.

An important study is V.F.Morgun's study, which shows that the motivational interest in the academic subject of students distributed into groups depends on group cohesion. That is, when recruiting groups, a significant role is played not only by the academic performance and general development of students, but also by taking into account the students' own desires, which is taken into account only when using a democratic style of pedagogical communication. In other words, when assigning to groups, it is necessary to ask a question of this kind: "Who would you like to study with in music lessons in the same group?" The increased interest in small group interaction is facilitated by the fact that the priority is not the teacher-student relationship, but the cooperation between the students. In close-knit groups, students' interest in the subject under study has increased sharply. In the groups, in which there was no group cohesion, the attitude to the subject began to decline [3, p. 98-99].

Thus, we are convinced that it is very important to develop the cognitive interest of younger students in a music lesson. It is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of younger students, their capabilities and abilities. The task of the teacher is to organize the musical and creative activity of schoolchildren, to create an atmosphere of trust and friendliness, in which the formation of cognitive activity of younger students, their initiative and desire for new knowledge of the world of music, will most effectively be revealed.

References

1. Averin V.A. Psychology of children and adolescents: Textbook allowance. - 2nd ed., Rev. - SPb.: Publishing house of Mikhailov V.A., 1998. 379 p.

2. Aigumova Z.I. [and etc.]; under the general editorship of A.S. Obukhov. Psychology of primary school children: textbook and workshop for universities. - Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2020. 424 p.

3. Talyzina N.F. Psychology of children of primary school age: the formation of cognitive activity of younger schoolchildren: a textbook for secondary vocational education - 2nd ed. revised and additional. - Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2020. 174 p.

4. Feoktistova S.V., Marinova T.Yu., Vasilyeva N.N. Psychology: a textbook for secondary vocational education - 2nd ed., Rev. and add. - Moscow: Yurayt Publishing House, 2020. 234 p.